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Published by: Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research on Mar 08, 2007
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Tyndall Technical Report 39
1
 
Tyndall Centre for Climate Change ResearchTechnical Report 39
Domestic Tradable Quotas:A policy instrument for reducinggreenhouse gas emissions from energy use 
Richard Starkey &Kevin AndersonDecember 2005
 
Tyndall Technical Report 39
2
 
Domestic Tradable Quotas: A policy instrument forreducing greenhouse gas emissions from energy use
 
Tyndall Centre Technical Report No. 39December 2005This is the final report from Tyndall research project
T3.22
(Domestic Tradable Quotas: A policy instrumentfor reducing greenhouse gas emissions from energy use). The following researchers worked on this project:Richard Starkey, Tyndall Centre, School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering,University of Manchester Dr Kevin Anderson, Tyndall Centre, School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering,University of Manchester 
 
Tyndall Technical Report 39
3
 Abstract
Domestic Tradable Quotas (DTQs) are a “cap and trade” scheme for the reduction of greenhouse gasemissions from energy use. The scheme was proposed by Dr David Fleming, a London-based policyanalyst, who first published the idea in 1996. Under DTQs, emissions rights (“carbon units”) are allocatedto and surrendered by all end-purchasers of fuel and electricity i.e. adult individuals and organizations.Carbon units are allocated to adult individuals free and on an equal per capita basis whilst organizations purchase the units they require on a national market for carbon units. Individuals with surplus units can sellthem on the national carbon market and individuals who require additional units can purchase them on themarket.Project T3.22 set out to evaluate the feasibility of DTQs and their appropriateness as an instrument of public policy. The three evaluation criteria used were equity, effectiveness and efficiency. Key findings are asfollows:
 Equity
 
Strong arguments exist within the philosophical literature on distributive justice that the equal per capitaallocation of carbon units under DTQs is equitable.
 
DTQs should be implemented in conjunction with policies that build on existing approaches to tacklingfuel poverty.
  Effectiveness
 
It is technically feasible to build a DTQs scheme around the existing infrastructure for credit and debitcards.
 
Enrolling 45 million plus individuals into a DTQs scheme might be challenging in the absence of an IDscheme but should be feasible using an approach known as “electronic verification (see Section 5.2 of Technical Report)
 
The equal per capita allocation of carbon units to individuals under DTQs may promote publicacceptability of the scheme, and the scheme should be sufficiently easy and convenient for the public touse.
 Efficiency
 
Whilst DTQs might be seen by some as controversial and costly, the scheme is likely to be less costlythan current and somewhat controversial government schemes such as ID cards and road user chargingand, hence, DTQs are, arguably, affordable in public policy terms.
 
DTQs are likely to have greater set-up and running costs that other proposed instruments for emissionsreduction but these additional costs may be justified by additional benefits relating to equity, publicacceptability and the efficiency of emissions reduction.
Keywords
Domestic Tradable Quotas; DTQs; emissions trading; equity; information technology
Objectives
Prior to the commencement of the project, David Fleming had published a preliminary specification andevaluation of DTQs but there was an absence of other research into the scheme. Given the advantagesclaimed for the scheme, Project T3.22 therefore aimed
to contribute to the policy debate on climate change mitigation by providing a detailed academicevaluation of the appropriateness of DTQs as an instrument for reducing greenhouse gasemissions arising from energy use.
To provide such an evaluation, three criteria were chosen that are recognized in the literature as appropriatefor evaluating environmental policy instruments. These were the “3Es” of equity, effectiveness andefficiency.

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