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Reference and Inference

Reference and Inference



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Published by api-3718838

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Published by: api-3718838 on Oct 14, 2008
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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What is reference?
Here are two senses forrefer e n ce :
1. Reference is the symbolic relationship that a linguistic expression has with the
concrete object or abstraction it represents.
2. Reference is the relationship of one linguistic expression to another, in which one
provides the information necessary to interpret the other

When confronted with the history of school math, education can adopt two approaches. The traditional one accepts school math and attempts -often with a great struggle- to teach it; computers are used by some teachers for this purpose. Consequently, forcefeeding unwelcome and unpopular material left over from the pre- computer age has become -alas -the most common use of the computer in education. On the other hand, the computer has a totally different use in Turtle geometry. There, the fans of Turtle geometry maintain, the computer is used as a so-called mathematically expressive medium, one that frees teachers to design meaningful and coherent and easily learnable math topics for children. Now, instead of the educational problem being put as "how to teach the existing school math,\u201d it is posed as "reconstructing knowledge in such a way that no large effort is needed to teach it."

1. What does the word "one" in line 2 refer to?
(A) History of math.
(C) School.
(B) Math education.
(D) Approach.
2. What does the word "it" in line 3. refer to?
(A) The computer.
(C) School.
(B) Math education.
(D) School math.
3. What do the words "this purpose" in line 3. refer to?
(A) Teaching in school.
(C) Teaching school math.
(B) Teaching educators.
(D) Math education.
4. What does the word "there" in line 7 refer to?
(A) In the post-computer age.
(C) In computer studies
(B) In Turtle geometry
(D) In expressive mediums.
5. What does "one" in line 8 refer to?
(A) Geometry. (B) Computer. (C) Medium.
(D) Topic.
6. What does the word "it" in line 10 refer to?
(A) A learnable mathematical topic.
(C) How to teach the existing school math.
(B) The educational problem.
(D) Reconstructing mathematics.
7. What does the word "it" in line li refer to?
(A) The computer.
(C) Reconstructing knowledge.
(B) Mathematics.
(D) The chief problem.
Making Inferences and Drawing Conclusions
Read with purpose and meaning
Drawing conclusions refers to information that is implied or inferred. This means that the
information is never clearly stated.

Writers often tell you more than they say directly. They give you hints or clues that help you
"read between the lines." Using these clues to give you a deeper understanding of your reading is
calledinferri ng. When youi nfer, you go beyond the surface details to see other meanings that the
details suggest ori mp l y (not stated). When the meanings of words are not stated clearly in the
context of the text, they may bei mp l ie d - that is, suggested or hinted at. When meanings are
implied, you mayi nfer them.

Inference is just a big word that means a conclusionor judgement. If you infer that something

has happened, you do not see, hear, feel, smell, or taste the actual event. But from what you know, it makes sense to think that it has happened. You make inferences everyday. Most of the time you do so without thinking about it. Suppose you are sitting in your car stopped at a red signal light. You hear screeching tires, then a loud crash and breaking glass. You see nothing, but youinfer that there has been a car accident. We all know the sounds of screeching tires and a crash. We know that these sounds almost always mean a car accident. But there could be some other reason, and therefore another explanation, for the sounds. Perhaps it was not an accident involving two moving vehicles. Maybe an angry driver rammed a parked car. Or maybe someone played the sound of a car crash from a recording. Makingi nferen ces means choosing the most likely explanation from the facts at hand.

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