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59680831 Basic Introduction to Rheology

59680831 Basic Introduction to Rheology

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Published by: Deepika Gupta on Sep 27, 2011
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A BASIC INTRODUCTIONTO RHEOLOGY 
 All rights reserved. No part of this manual may bereproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means,electronic or mechanical, including photocopying,recording or by any information storage and retrievalsystem, without prior written permission from BohlinInstruments UK Ltd.(C) Copyright 1994 by Bohlin Instruments Ltd,The Corinium Centre, Cirencester, Glos., Great Britain
Part No MAN0334 Issue 2
 
 
A B
ASIC
I
NTRODUCTION TO
R
HEOLOGY
1994 Bohlin Instruments Ltd. Page
2
C
ONTENTS
P
AGE
Section 1 - Introduction to rheology 
This gives a brief introduction to the basic terms and definitions encountered in rheology.
Section 2 - Selecting measuring geometries
This covers the selection of measuring geometries.
Section 3 - Flow characterisation
Covers viscometry tests, flow curves and rheological models. Time and temperature dependence arelooked at as sources of rheological error.
Section 4 - Creep analysis
Looks at the creep test.
Section 5 - Viscoelastic characterisation
Covers oscillatory, relaxation and stress growth tests.
 Appendix-A - Some practical applications of rheology 
Contains various practical applications / equations.
 Appendix-B - References & bibliography 
References & Bibliography- A list further reading material.
 Appendix-C - Calculation of shear rate and shear stress formfactors.
Shear rate and shear stress form factors.
 Appendix-D - Principle of operation of rheometers and viscometers.
Principle of operation of controlled stress (CS) rheometers.Principle of operation of controlled shear rate rheometers.
Index 
 
 
A B
ASIC
I
NTRODUCTION TO
R
HEOLOGY
1994 Bohlin Instruments Ltd. Page
3
SECTION 1 - I
NTRODUCTION TO
R
HEOLOGY
(A) Simple deformation under an applied constant force(Hookean response)
To define the term STRAIN we will consider a cube of material with its base fixed to a surface (SeeFigure-1).
Figure-1
If we now apply a constant 'pushing' force, F, to the upper part of the cube, assuming the materialbehaves as an ideal solid, it will obey Hooke's law of elastic deformation and will deform to a newposition (Figure-2)This type of deformation (lower fixed, upper moving) is defined as a SHEAR DEFORMATION.
Figure-2 
The deformation
δ
u and h are used to define the SHEAR STRAIN as :Shear Strain =
δ
u/hThe shear strain is simply a ratio of two lengths and so has no units. It is important since it enables us toquote pre-defined deformations without having to specify sizes of sample, etc.The SHEAR STRESS is defined as F/A (A is the area of the upper surface of the cube l x w) Since theunits of force are Newtons and the units of area are m
2
it follows that the units of Shear Stress are N/m
2
This is referred to as the PASCAL (i.e. 1 N/m
2
= 1 Pascal) and is denoted by the symbol
σ
(in older textbooks you may see it denoted as
τ
).For a purely elastic material Hooke's law states that the stress is proportional to the strain i.e.Stress = G x Strain where G is defined as the SHEAR MODULUS (a constant)Thus doubling the stress would double the strain i.e. the material is behaving with a LINEARRESPONSE. If the stress is removed, the strain returns instantaneously (assuming no inertia) to zeroi.e. the material has undergone a fully recoverable deformation and so NO FLOW HAS OCCURRED.

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