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Published by: Xheilah SpringDeep Buendia on Sep 27, 2011
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42Alternative SolutionsThe BCA successfully combines a dual approach. It provides a strong degree of certainty,combined with a high degree of flexibility, so that:• If compliance is achieved with the deemed-to-satisfy provisions, a building proposal isdeemed to have complied with BCA96; however• If a building proponent wants to take an alternative approach, they have the opportunityto do so - on the understanding that their proposal must achieve the performancerequirements of the BCA.The first step in using the BCA is to choose the means by which the building proposal willachieve compliance with the BCA. This will be by either:• A deemed-to-satisfy solution; or• An alternative solution; or• A mixture of deemed-to-satisfy and alternative solutions.Deemed to Satisfy (DTS) provisions is the prescriptive solution that accompaniesthe BCA,which is deemed to meet the BCA performance requirements. They generally consistof thetechnical provisions of the previous BCA and contain many of the traditional constructionmethods that are commonly used. A building solution that meets the DTS provisions needsno further assessment for compliance with the performance requirements.The term alternative solution is a building solution that complies with the performancerequirements by means other than the DTS provisions. Examples of this approach mayinclude the use of differing methodologies or approaches such as those in fire engineering.Part 343Another example is the use of other international construction codes that differfrom theAustralian Standards referenced in the BCA DTS provisions.To ensure that an alternative solution, when using a building solution, meets theperformance requirements, it must be assessed according to one or more of the specifiedassessment methods outlined in BCA Clause A0.9. The nature of the assessment method tobe used will vary depending on the complexity of the alternative solution.Evidence of SuitabilityBCA Clause A2.2 allows the following evidence (in some cases subject to conditions) to besubmitted in support of a proposal that a material, form of construction or design meets aperformance requirement or a deemed-to-satisfy provision:i) A report from a Registered Testing Authority.ii) A current Certificate of Accreditation or Certificate of Conformity.iii) A certificate from a professional engineer.iv) A current certificate issued by a product certification body that has been accredited bythe Joint Accreditation System of Australia and New Zealand (JAS-ANZ).v) A current Scientific Services Laboratory (SSL) Product Listing Data Sheet.vi) Any other form of documentary evidence that adequately demonstrates suitability for use.
 
Verification MethodsA verification method is defined in the BCA as a test, inspection, calculation or other methodthat determines whether a building solution complies with the relevant performancerequirements. It provides a methodology under which a building solution can be assessed,and includes a benchmark or predetermined acceptable criteria that the solutionmustachieve.44There are two types of verification methods specified in Clause A0.9:i) The verification methods contained in the BCAii) Other verification methods as the appropriate authority accept for determining complianceto the performance requirements.The verification methods contained in the BCA are CV1 and CV2 and are used formeasuring ‘radiant heat flux’ as part of assessing matters associated with fire spreadbetween buildings. Other verification methods by definition allow almost any methodology orprocedure to be used to verify an alternative solution, subject to that method being suitableand used in the appropriate way. An example, may be an overseas design standardoreven, an Australian Standard covering design methodologies eg AS 3600 – concretestructures.Expert Judgement – Who Is an Expert?The BCA defines an ‘expert’ for the purposes of making expert judgement. The BCAdefinition of expert judgement is the judgement of a person who has the qualifications andexperience to determine whether a building solution complies with the BCA performancerequirements or DTS provisions.In some instances, there can be a degree of overlap between expert judgement andotherassessment methods. This is particularly the case with:i) The acceptance of documentary evidence complying with:ii) BCA Clause A2.2 (a) (iii) - ‘other appropriately qualified persons’:45andiii) Clause A2.2 (a) (VI) - ‘other documentary evidence’;andiv) Comparative assessment with the DTS Provisions Prior to accepting an opinionor reportusing expert judgement as an assessment method, it is necessary to determine whether theperson providing the report or opinion is an expert and can provide the necessary expertjudgement. To determine if the report or opinion can be accepted, it would be necessary toassess the ‘experts’ qualifications and experience relevant to the matter that needsconsideration. If the person providing the report or opinion is considered by the approvalauthority to be appropriate to provide expert judgement, an approval authority can accept areport or opinion that concludes that a building component, material, design orsystemsatisfies the relevant BCA performance requirements.Unit 4 Apply Fire Protection Requirements.
 
4.1 Passive and active fire control elements for low-rise building required by the BCAand other legislation are identified and applied.Part 2.3 of the BCA outlines the Objective, Functional Statement and Performancerequirement for Fire SafetyUnderstanding Fire Resistance LevelsA Fire Resistance Level, (FRL) is a term used in the Building Code of Australiato provide auniform nomenclature for the “fire rating” or the prescriptive or “deemed-to-satisfy”requirements for specific element of construction.46FRL ratings are determined by subjecting a representative test specimen to the standardfire test; defined in the BCA as AS1530/4 and AS4072/1, the latter providing more detailedadvice to for service penetration and control joints, complementing Section 10 of AS1530/4.The FRL consists of three ratings in minutes, (rounded down to the nearest 30 minute timeincrement), namely Structural Adequacy, Integrity and Insulation, designated inthe followingformat:FRL = Structural Adequacy / Integrity / Insulation. Example = 120/120/60These ratings are determined from the standard fire test or by way of formal opinions orassessments by Registered Testing Authorities in strict accordance with the acceptableprotocols for variations to tested specimens outlined in the relevant product standard.Structural AdequacyIn terms of the standard fire test, failure for structural adequacy is deemed tohave occurredwhen the element collapses or the rate of deflection for the element is in excess ofprescribed limitsIntegrityIn terms of the standard fire test, failure for integrity criteria, for elementsintended toseparate spaces and resist the passage of flame from one space to another, is deemed tooccur when continuous flaming occurs on the non-exposed side of the tested specimen, orwhen cracks, fissures and other openings through which hot flames and gases canpassthrough are present, (the method of measurement is given in the test method).47InsulationIn terms of the standard fire test, failure for insulation criteria, again for elements intended toseparate spaces and resist the passage of flame from one space to another, is deemed tohave occurred when the temperature rise of the non-exposed side exceeds predeterminedthresholds, typically being a temperature rise of (average) 140K and maximum 180K. Forpenetration seals, only the maximum failure criteria of 180 degrees are used.Self Assessment ExerciseRead Part 2.3 of the BCA and determine the Objective, Functional Statement andPerformance Requirements for Fire Safety.How are heating appliances affected?

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