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Ch22 - Electromagnetic Waves

Ch22 - Electromagnetic Waves

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Chapter 22 Lecture Notes
Formulas:
\u03a3B\u23a5\u23a5\u2206l=\u00b5oI+\u00b5o\u03b5o\u2206\u03a6E/\u2206t
\u03a6E= EA
\u03bb =c/f
S =P/A =U/tA =uV /tA =uc
u=U/V = (1/2)\u03b5oE2 + 1/(2\u00b5o)B2 =\u03b5oE2 = (1/\u00b5o)B2
Demonstrations:
\ue000Show a transverse wave (rope), and a longitudinal wave
(slinky).
\ue000Energy of a short wave transmitter
\ue000EM spectrum
Electromagnetic Waves
Changing Electric Fields Produce Magnetic Fields

We have learned in Chapter 21 that changing magnetic fields create electric fields. In the mid-1800's, the famous Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwellhypothesized that changing electric

fields might also create magnetic fields and that this interaction would create electromagnetic (EM) waves, waves of oscillating electric and magnetic fields. He predicted that the speed of these electromagnetic waves would be the speed of light. Consequently, he predicted that visible light was an electromagnetic wave. Let's look at the first part of his theory, that changing electric fields produce magnetic fields.

Your book describes how Maxwell hypothesized something called
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the displacement current , which was shown to be equivalent to a changing electric
flux. That is
ID=\u03b5o\u2206\u03a6E/\u2206t
where the electric flux (\u03a6E) is defined in the same way as the magnetic flux, the amount of
electric field going through an area.
\u03a6E = EA
Maxwell showed that with this definition, Ampere's Law had an additional term and
should be written.
\u03a3B\u23a5\u23a5\u2206l=\u00b5oI+\u00b5o\u03b5o\u2206\u03a6E/\u2206t

Recall that Ampere's Law stated in mathematical terms that a current produced a magnetic field. With this additional term, Maxwell showed that a changing electric flux would create a magnetic field, as well. So now we have the ideas that a changing electric flux creates a magnetic field, and a changing magnetic flux creates an electric field. Maxwell realized that this would lead to the production and self-propagation of electromagnetic waves. Let's see how this works.

Production of EM Waves

Let's assume we have an antenna, which is just some kind of wire that is connected to an ac source. The ac source produces oscillating + and - charges which set up electric field (due to the separation of charge) and a magnetic field (due to the current in the wire).

Note that the electric and magnetic fields are perpendicular to each other. This field begins to move away from the antenna and in a little while the ac source has caused the situation to reverse.

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We have a magnetic field that is oscillating in and out of the paper and an electric field that is oscillating up and down in the paper. Since a changing magnetic field creates an electric field and a changing electric field creates a magnetic field, these two oscillating fields continue to reinforce each other, and the wave propagates through space.

We have shown how to create an EM waves using an antenna. In general,
electromagnetic waves are created by any accelerating charge.
The Nature of EM Waves
What are the properties of these electromagnetic waves?
Transverse Wave
Demonstration: Transverse and Longitudinal Waves

They are transverse waves. That means the direction of oscillation is perpendicular to the direction of motion. The electric and magnetic fields are sinusoidally oscillating perpendicular to the direction of motion.

Composed of Electric and Magnetic Fields
The waves are composed of electric and magnetic fields. As we have seen,

1.The fields are oscillating
2.The fields are at right angles to each other
3.The fields are at right angles to direction of motion
4.The fields are in phase. The peak of the magnetic field occurs at the same time as the peak

of the electric field.
The Speed of EM Waves

One amazing thing about Maxwell's hypothesis was that hepredicted what the speed of electromagnetic radiation should be. The book shows briefly how to calculate this from principles that we already know. Using a similar method, Maxwell showed that the speed of electromagnetic waves in a vacuum would be

c =(\u03b5o\u00b5o)-1/2
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