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الحرب الأهلية الأسبانية - تجربة أناركية - إيدي كونلون

الحرب الأهلية الأسبانية - تجربة أناركية - إيدي كونلون

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Published by Yasser Abdullah
الترجمة العربية لكراس إيدي كونلون عن الحرب الأهلية الأسبانية
http://http://struggle.ws/pdfs/spain.pdf
الترجمة العربية لكراس إيدي كونلون عن الحرب الأهلية الأسبانية
http://http://struggle.ws/pdfs/spain.pdf

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Categories:Types, Research
Published by: Yasser Abdullah on Sep 28, 2011
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08/11/2012

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ﺔﻴﻧﺎﺒﺳﻷﺍ ﺔﻴﻠﻫﻷﺍ ﺏﺮﳊﺍ 
ﻴﻛﺭﺎﻧﺃ ﺔﺑﺮﲡﺔ  
ﻒﻴﻟﺄﺗ :ﻥﻮﻠﻧﻮﻛ ﻱﺪﻳﺇ  ﹸﻛ ﺔﻴﻧﺎﺒﺳﻷﺍ ﺔﻴﻠﻫﻷﺍ ﺏﺮﳊﺍ ﻦﻋ ﲑﺜﻜﻟﺍ ﺐﺘ ﻦﻜﻟﻭ ،ﲔﻴﻛﺭﺎﻧﻷﺍ ﺔﻛﺭﺎﺸﻣ ﻭﺃ ،ﻞﻤﻬﺗ ﺖﻧﺎﻛ ﺎﻣﺇ ﺎﻬﻴﻓﺕﺎﻤﻴﻤﻌﺗ ﻭﺃ ،ﺔﺤﻗﻭ ﺐﻳﺫﺎﻛﺃ ﱃﺇ ﻝﺰﺘﺨﺗ  ﲔﺑﺮﺨﳌﺎﺑ ﻢﻬﻔﺼﺗ ﺔﻫﻮﺸﻣ.ﱃﺇ ﺭﻮﻣﻷﺍ ﺓﺩﺎﻋﻹ ﺭﻮﺸﻨﳌﺍ ﺍﺬﻫ ﺐﺘﻛ ﺪﻗﻭﺎﺎﺼﻧ.ﻟﺍ ﺔﻴﻠﻫﻷﺍ ﺏﺮﺤﻠﻟ ﺎﳜﺭﺄﺗ ﺲﻴﻟ ﺭﻮﺸﻨﳌﺍ ﺍﺬﻫﺬ ﻱﻳ ﺕﺎﺌﻣ ﺐﻠﻄﺘ  ﺎﻔﻳﻹ ﺕﺎﺤﻔﺼﻟﺍﻪﻘﺣ ﻉﻮﺿﻮﳌﺍ ﺀ.ﻒﺸﻜﻟ ﺐﺘﹸﻛ ﺪﻘﻟ"ﻲﻔﳋﺍ ﺦﻳﺭﺎﺘﻟﺍ" ﺔﻴﺷﺎﻔﻟﺍ ﺪﺿ ﻝﺎﻀﻨﻟﺍ ﰲ ﲔﻴﻛﺭﺎﻧﻷﺍ ﺔﳘﺎﺴﳌ. 
ﻦﻜﻟﻭ ،ﺔﻴﳝﺩﺎﻛﻷﺍ ﺓﺪﺋﺎﻔﻠﻟ ﺭﻮﺸﻨﳌﺍ ﺍﺬﻫ ﺐﺘﻜ ﻳ ﱂﻥﻵﺍ ﺔﻴﻛﺭﺎﻧﻷﺍ ﺔﻴﳘﻷﺏﺮﳊﺍ ﺖﻗﻭ ﺎﻬﺘﻴﳘﺃ ﺭﺪﻘﺑ.ﺔﻴﻋﺎﻤﺘﺟﻻﺍ ﺔﻴﻃﺍﺮﻘﳝﺪﻟﺍ ﺞﺋﺎﺘﻧ ﺎﻧﺪﻬﺷ ﺪﻘﻟﰲﻭ ،ﲔﺼﻟﺍ ﰲﻭ ،ﺎﻴﺳﻭﺭ ﰲ ﻥﻮﻴﻨﻴﻟﺎﺘﺴﻟﺍ ﻪﻠﻌﻓ ﺎﻣ ﺎﻧﺪﻬﺷﻭ ،ﺔﻴﻟﺎﻤﻌﻟﺍ ﺎﺍﺰﺣﺃﻭﺎﻴﻧﺎﺒﻟﺃﻭ ،ﻞﺸﻓ ﻒﻴﻛ ﺎﻨﻳﺃﺭ ﺎﻤﻛ ،ﺎﻬﻴﻠﻋ ﺍﻭﺮﻄﻴﺳ ﱵﻟﺍ ﻝﻭﺪﻟﺍﻢﻫﺩﺎﻘﻧ ﻜﺴﺗﻭﺮﺘﻟﺍ ﺔﻛﺮﳊﺍ ﰲ ﻥﻮﻳﺭﺎﺴﻴﻟﺍﺓﺮﻜﻔﻟﺍ ؛ﺔﻴﻘﻴﻘﳊﺍ ﺔﻠﻜﺸﳌﺍ ﺏﺎﻌﻴﺘﺳﺍ ﰲ ﺔﻴ ﻪﻧﺄﺑ ﺔﻠﺋﺎﻘﻟﺍ ﺔﻳﻮﻄﻠﺴﻟﺍﱂﺎﻌﻟﺍ ﲑﻴﻐﺗ ﻦﻜﳝ ﻕﻮﻓﻝﺎﻤﻌﻟﺍ ﺱﻭﺅﺭ.ﺔﻘﻴﻘﳊﺍ ﰲ ﲑﺜﻜﺑ ﻞﻀﻓﺃ ﻥﻮﻜﻳ ﻦﻟ ﻪﻨﻜﻟ ،ﺔﻘﻳﺮﻄﻟﺍ ﻩﺬ ﻩﲑﻴﻐﺗ ﻦﻜﳝ . ﺔﻴﻛﺭﺎﻧﻷﺍﱵﻟﺍ ﻲﻫ ﻂﻘﻓﺍﺬﻫ ﻦﻋ ﺪﻌﺘﺒﺗﺔﻳﺮﳊﺍ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﻴﻨﺒﳌﺍ ﺔﻴﻛﺍﺮﺘﺷﻻﺍ ﺃﺪﺒﲟ  ﺔﻴﺼﺨﺸﻟﺍ،ﻭﻰﻠﻋﺲﻟﺎﳎﻝﺎﻤﻌﻟﺍ.ﻮﻘﻋ ﺔﻌﺑﺭﺃ ﻢﻏﺭﻭ ،ﺍﺬﳍﺩ،ﻊﻤﻘﻟﺍ ﻦﻣﺮﻬﻇ ﺍﲏﻃﻮﻟﺍ ﱄﺍﺭﺪﻴﻔﻧﻮﻜﻟﺍ ﻝﺎﻤﻌﻟﺍ ﺩﺎﲢﻮﻜﻧﺍﺮﻓ ﺓﺎﻓﻭ ﺪﻌﺑ ﻲﻘﻴﻘﺣ ﺩﺎﲢﺎﻛ.ﺎﻨﻧﺇ ﻥﻭﺪﻳﺮﻳ ﻦﳌ ﻯﺮﺧﺃ ﺕﺍﺭﺎﻴﺘﺧﺍ ﻦﻤﺿ ﺭﺎﻴﺘﺧﺍ ﺩﺮﳎ ﺖﺴﻴﻟ ﺔﻴﻛﺭﺎﻧﻷﺍ ﻥﺃ ﺪﻘﺘﻌﻧﺭﻭﺮﺿ ﺎﻬﻨﻜﻟ ،ﻞﻀﻓﺃ ﺎﳌﺎﻋﺦﻳﺭﺎﺗ ﺖﺒﺜﻳ ﺎﻤﻛ ﺓﻞﻛﺭﺎﺴﻴﻟﺍ ﺕﺎﻛﺮﺣ ﻯﺮﺧﻷﺍ. 
ﻝﻭﻷﺍ ﻞﺼﻔﻟﺍ –ﺔﻣﻭﺎﻘﳌﺍﻭ ﺩﺮﻤﺘﻟﺍ
 
ﻨﻴﺛﻼﺛ ﰲ ﺎﺑﻭﺭﻭﺃ ﺖﻧﺎﻛ ﺮﲤ ﻦﻳﺮﺸﻌﻟﺍ ﻥﺮﻘﻟﺍ ﺕﺎ ﺕﺍﺮﺘﻓ ﺃﻮﺳﺃ ﻯﺪﺣﺈﺑﺎﻬﻃﻮﺒﻫ.ﺭﺎﻴﺍ ﺕﺎﻴﻋﺍﺪﺗ 1929ﺔﻌﺳﺍﻭ ﺖﻧﺎﻛ ﺖﻳﺮﺘﺳ ﻝﻭﻭ ﰲ ﺭﺎﺸﺘﻧﻻﺍ.ﺗ ﱂﻭﻔﻠﺘﳐ ﺎﻴﻧﺎﺒﺳﺃ ﻝﺎﺣ ﻦﻜ ﺔ . 
ﻡﺎﻌﻟﺍ ﻝﻮﻠﲝ1936ﺔﺒﺴﻧ ﺖﻌﻔﺗﺭﺍﱃﺇ ﺔﻟﺎﻄﺒﻟﺍ30%ﻥﺪﳌﺍ ﻦﻣ ﺪﻳﺪﻌﻟﺍ ﰲ، ﺕﺍﺪﻠﺒﻟﺍﻭ.ﻞﻃﺎﻋ ﻥﻮﻴﻠﻣ ﻙﺎﻨﻫ ﻥﺎﻛﻦﻤﺿﺛﻼﺛ ﺎﻬﻣﺍﻮﻗ ﻞﻤﻋ ﺓﻮﻗﺔ ﲔﻳﻼﻣ. 
ﺽﺭﻷﺍ 
ﺪﻠﺑ ﺎﻴﻧﺎﺒﺳﺃ ﺖﻧﺎﻛ ﺎﺑﻭﺭﻭﺃ ﺲﻴﻳﺎﻘﲟ ﺍﺎﻔﻠﺨﺘﻣﺢﺿﺍﻭ ﻞﻜﺸﺑ.ﻲﻋﺎﻨﺼﻟﺍ ﺭﻮﻄﺘﻟﺍ ﻥﺎﻛﻭ ،ﺍﺩﻭﺪﳏ ﻥﺎﻛ70%ﺱﺎﻨﻟﺍ ﻦﻣﻦﻣ ﻥﻮﺗﺎﺘﻘﻳﺔﻋﺍﺭﺰﻟﺍ.ﻥﺎﻛ52% ﻦﻣﺔﻠﻣﺎﻌﻟﺍ ﻯﻮﻘﻟﺍﺔﻋﺍﺭﺰﻟﺎﺑ ﻥﻮﻠﻤﻌﻳﻲﺜﻠﺛ ﱃﺇ ﻒﺼﻧ ﻦﻣ ﺖﻠﻜﺷ ﱵﻟﺍ ﺎﻴﻧﺎﺒﺳﺃ ﺕﺍﺭﺩﺎﺻ. ﺎﺑﻭﺭﻭﺃ ﰲ ﻊﻳﺯﻮﺗ ﺃﻮﺳﺃ ﺎﻴﻧﺎﺒﺳﺃ ﰲ ﻲﺿﺍﺭﻷﺍ ﻊﻳﺯﻮﺗ ﻥﺎﻛ.2%ﻙﻼﳌﺍ ﻦﻣ ﺍﻮﻧﺎﻛﻥﻮﻜﻠﳝ 67%ﺽﺭﻷﺍ ﻦﻣ.ﻡﺎﻋ1936ﻥﺎﻛ10,000ﻚﻟﺎﻣ ﺪﻠﺒﻟﺍ ﻲﺿﺍﺭﺃ ﻒﺼﻧ ﻥﻭﺯﻮﳛ.ﺓﺯﻮﲝ ﻥﺎﻛ ﻲﻗﺎﺒﻟﺍ ﻒﺼﻨﻟﺍ"ﻙﻼﳌﺍ ﲔﻄﺳﻮﺘﳌﺍ"،ﲔﺣﻼﻔﻟﺍﻭ.ﺩﺪﻋ ﻥﺎﻛ"ﲔﻄﺳﻮﺘﳌﺍ ﻙﻼﳌﺍ"ﺩﺪﻋ ﻦﻣ ﱪﻛﺃ ﺭﺎﺒﻜﻟﺍ ﻙﻼﳌﺍﻥﻮﻜﻠﳝ ﺍﻮﻧﺎﻛ ﺎﻀﻳﺃ ﻢﻬﻨﻜﻟﻭ ،ﺎﺑﺰﻋﻥﻮﺣﻼﻔﻟﺍ ﺎ ﻞﻤﻌﻳ ﺓﲑﺒﻛ ،ﻝﻮﺼﶈﺍ ﻦﻣ ﺔﺒﺴﻧ ﻰﻠﻋ ﻥﻮﻠﺼﳛ ﻦﻳﺬﻟﺍﻮﺣﺩﺎﻜﻟﺍﻭﻥﻥﻮﻜﻠﳝ ﻻ ﻦﻳﺬﻟﺍ ﺎﻮﻋﺭﺰﻳ ﺽﺍﺭﺃ. 
 
ﻢﻫﺩﺪﻋ ﻎﻠﺒﻳﻭ ،ﻥﻮﺣﻼﻔﻟﺍ ﻥﺎﻛ5،ﲔﻳﻼﻣﻲﺿﺍﺭﻷﺍ ﻲﻗﺎﺑ ﻥﻮﻜﻠﳝ .ﻥﻷﻭﱵﻟﺍ ﺽﺭﻷﺍ ﺔﺣﺎﺴﻣ ﻞﻤﻌﻠﻟ ﺍﻭﺮﻄﺿﺍ ﺓﲑﻐﺻ ﺖﻧﺎﻛ ﻢﻬﻨﻣ ﺩﺮﻔﻟﺍ ﺎﻬﻜﻠﳝ ﻢﻬﻀﻌﺑ ﻥﺃ ﻻﺇ ،ﻢﻬﺴﻔﻧﺄﺑ ﺎﻬﻴﻓﻥﻭﺮﺟﺆﻳ ﺍﻮﻧﺎﻛﻝﻮﺼﶈﺍ ﻦﻣ ﺔﺒﺴﻧ ﻞﺑﺎﻘﻣ ﻞﻤﻌﻠﻟ ﲔﺣﻼﻓ. 
ﺭﺎﻫﺩﺯﻻﺍ 
ﱃﻭﻷﺍ ﺔﻴﳌﺎﻌﻟﺍ ﺏﺮﳊﺍ ﻝﻼﺧ ﺎﻴﻧﺎﺒﺳﺃ ﺕﺮﻫﺩﺯﺍ،ﺖﻴﻘﺑ ﱵﻟﺍﻓﺩﺎﻴﳊﺍ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺎﻬﻴ .ﺔﻋﺍﺭﺰﻟﺍ ﺖﺸﻌﺘﻧﺍ ﺎﺍﺭﺩﺎﺼﻟ ﱯﻨﺟﻷﺍ ﻕﻮﺴﻟﺍ ﻉﺎﺴﺗﺍ ﺔﺠﻴﺘﻧ.ﺎﻤﻛﻲﻋﺎﻨﺼﻟﺍ ﻁﺎﺸﻨﻟﺍ ﱃﺇ ﻼﻴﻠﻗ ﺖﻟﻮﲢ.ﺖﻬﺘﻧﺍ ﻦﻜﻟﻭ،ﺏﺮﳊﺍ ﺀﺎﻬﺘﻧﺎﺑ ﺭﺎﻫﺩﺯﻻﺍ ﺓﺮﺘﻓﺎﻣﺪﻨﻋ ﺔﺻﺎﺧﺎﻴﻧﺎﻄﻳﺮﺑ ﺎﻬﺘﺿﺮﻓ ﱵﻟﺍ ﺔﻴﻛﺮﻤﳉﺍ ﺰﺟﺍﻮﳊﺍ ﺖﻔﻗﻭ،ﻓﻭﺔﻴﻧﺎﺒﺳﻷﺍ ﺕﺍﺭﺩﺎﺼﻟﺍ ﻪﺟﻭ ﰲ ﺎﺴﻧﺮ .  ،ﺭﺎﻫﺩﺯﻻﺍ ﺓﺮﺘﻓ ﻊﻓﺎﻨﻣ ﺽﺭﻷﺍ ﻙﻼﻣ ﺔﻘﺒﻃ ﺖﻨﺟﻦﻜﻟﺭﺎﻴﻻﺍ ﺖﻗﻭ ﺍﻮﻧﺎﻋ ﻦﻣ ﻢﻫ ﲔﺣﻼﻔﻟﺍ.ﺔﺎﺸﻣ ﺕﺎﻨﻴﺛﻼﺜﻟﺍ ﰲ ﺎﻴﻧﺎﺒﺳﺃ ﻝﺍﻮﺣﺃ ﺖﻧﺎﻛﻕﺮﺸﻟﺍ ﻝﺍﻮﺣﻷ.ﻢﺳﺍﻮﻣ ﲔﺑ ﻞﲢ ﺕﺎﻋﺎﺍ ﺖﻧﺎﻛﺩﺎﺼﳊﺍ.ﺍﺬﻫ ﺔﻓﺎﺤﺻ ﺖﻠﻘﻧﺖﻗﻮﻟﺍﻦﻋ ﺮﻳﺭﺎﻘﺗ ﺭﻭﺬﳉﺍ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺵﺎﺘﻌﺗ ﺖﻧﺎﻛ ﺀﺎﻴﺣﺃ،ﺮﻀﳋﺍﻭﺔﻗﻮﻠﺴﳌﺍ.ﻥﺎﻛﻰﻠﻋ ﺍﺭﻮﺼﻘﻣ ﺔﻋﺎﻨﺼﻠﻟ ﻝﻮﺤﺘﻟﺍ ﺗﺎﻛ ﺔﻘﻄﻨﻣﺎ ﺎﻴﻧﻮﻟ.ﺎﻴﻧﻮﻟﺎﺗﺎﻛ ﺖﺤﺒﺻﺃ،ﻊﻘﺗ ﱵﻟﺍ ﺔﺻﺎﺧﻭ ،ﺎﺴﻧﺮﻓ ﺓﺍﺫﺎﺤﲟ ﺎﻴﻧﺎﺒﺳﺃ ﻝﺎﴰ ﻰﺼﻗﺃﻲﻋﺎﻨﺼﻟﺍ ﺎﻴﻧﺎﺒﺳﺃ ﺐﻠﻗ ،ﺔﻧﻮﻠﺷﺮﺑ ﺎﻬﺘﻤﺻﺎﻋﻢﻜﲝـﻟ ﺎﻬﺋﺍﻮﺘﺣﺍ70%ﺕﺎﻋﺎﻨﺼﻟﺍ ﻦﻣ،ﺎ ﻞﻤﻌﻳ ﱵﻟﺍ 50%ﲔﻴﻋﺎﻨﺼﻟﺍ ﻝﺎﻤﻌﻟﺍ ﻦﻣ.ﺮﺠﻫﻦﻣ ﲑﺜﻜﻟﺍ ﻋ ﲔﺜﺣﺎﺑ ﻢﻬﻴﺿﺍﺭﺃ ﲔﺣﻼﻔﻟﺍ،ﺔﻧﻮﻠﺷﺮﺑ ﰲ ﻞﻤﻋ ﻦ ﺔﻟﺎﻄﺒﻟﺍ ﺔﺒﺴﻧ ﻦﻣ ﺩﺍﺯ ﺎﻣ. ﺔﻴﻜﻴﻟﻮﺛﺎﻜﻟﺍ ﺔﺴﻴﻨﻜﻟﺍ ﺕﺮﻄﻴﺳ ﻚﻟﺫ ﺐﻧﺎﺟ ﱃﺇ،ﺶﻴﳉﺍﻭﻊﻤﺘﺍ ﻰﻠﻋ.ﻙﺎﻨﻫ ﻥﺎﻛ25,000 ﻭ ،ﺔﻴﺷﺮﺑﺃ ﻦﻫﺎﻛ70,000ﻦﻳﺮﺧﺁﻥﻮﻤﻈﺘﻨﻣ ﺕﺎﻋﺎﲨﺔﻴﻨﻳﺩ.ﺘﻣﺍﻢﻫﺪﺣﻭ ﻥﻮﻴﻋﻮﺴﻴﻟﺍ ﻚﻠ  30%ﻦﻣﺩﻼﺒﻟﺍ ﺓﻭﺮﺛ.ﺕﺎﻋﺎﻤﳉﺍ ﺀﺎﻀﻋﺃ ﻥﺎﻛ ﺔﻳﻮﻧﺎﺜﻟﺍ ﺱﺭﺍﺪﳌﺍ ﺏﻼﻃ ﻦﻣ ﺮﺜﻛﺃ ﻊﻗﺍﻮﻟﺍ ﰲ ﺔﻴﻨﻳﺪﻟﺍﺍﺩﺪﻋ.ﲔﻳﻼﻣ ﱃﺇ ﲔﻴﻣﻷﺍ ﺩﺪﻋ ﻞﺻﻭ ﺎﻤﻨﻴﺑ)40%ﺓﺀﺍﺮﻘﻟﺍ ﺍﻮﻌﻴﻄﺘﺴﻳ ﱂ،ﺔﺑﺎﺘﻜﻟﺍ ﻭﺃ(، ﺍ ﰲ ﺔﺴﻴﻨﻜﻟﺍ ﺕﺮﻤﺘﺳﺍﺕﺎﻓﺍﺮﲞ ﲑﺸﺒﺘﻟ،ﺙﺍﺪﺣﺃﻭ ﺔﻴﻛﺎﺒﻟﺍ ﻞﻴﺛﺎﻤﺘﻟﺍ ﻞﺜﻣ ﺔﻟﻮﻘﻌﻣ ﲑﻏ،ﱵﻟﺍ ﻥﺎﺒﻠﺼﻟﺍﻭﺎﻣﺩ ﺢﻀﻨﺗ. ﻥﺎﻛ ﺎﻤﻨﻴﺑﻭ ،ﺩﺎﻴﺳﻷﺍ ﺪﻴﻳﺄﺘﺑ ﺔﺴﻴﻨﻜﻟﺍ ﺕﺮﻬﺘﺷﺍﻥﻮﺸﻴﻌﻳ ﻥﺎﺒﻫﺮﻟﺍﻥﻮﺣﻼﻔﻟﺍ ﻥﺎﻛ ،ﺔﻴﻫﺎﻓﺭ ﰲﺎﻋﻮﺟ ﻥﻮﺗﻮﳝ ﻢﳍﻮﺣ.ﺖﻧﺎﻛﺔﺴﻴﻨﻜﻟﺍﻼﺑ ، ،ﺐﺠﻋﺔﻫﻭﺮﻜﻣ.  ﲑﺒﻜﻟﺍ ﻪﻃﺎﺒﺿ ﺩﺪﻌﺑ ﺮﻬﺘﺸﻳ ﺶﻴﳉﺍ ﻥﺎﻛ.ﻛﻥﺎ  ﺩﻮﻨﺟ ﺔﺘﺳ ﻞﻜﻟ ﺪﺣﺍﻭ ﻂﺑﺎﺿ ﻙﺎﻨﻫ!ﺕﺭﻮﻄﺗﻲﻜﻠﳌﺍ ﻢﻜﳊﺍ ﺖﲢ ﺔﻴﻋﺎﻤﺘﺟﻻﺍ ﻁﺎﺒﻀﻟﺍ ﺔﻘﺒﻃ)ﻰﻬﺘﻧﺍ ﻱﺬﻟﺍﻡﺎﻋ1931(،ﺃﻭﺻﺖﺤﺒ ﺔﻟﻭﺆﺴﻣ ﻦﻋﺕﺍﺮﻤﻌﺘﺴﳌﺍ ﺓﺭﺍﺩﺇ،ﺎﻬﺴﻔﻧ ﺪﻠﺒﻠﻟ ﺔﻓﺎﺿﻹﺎﺑ. ﻘﺒﻄﻟﺍ ﻦﻣ ﻢﻫﺭﺪﲢ ﻢﻜﲝﺔﻘﺒﻃ ﺖﻄﺒﺗﺭﺍ ،ﺎﻴﻠﻌﻟﺍ ﺔ ﺔﺑﺍﺮﻘﻟﺍ ﻂﺑﺍﻭﺮﺑ ﻁﺎﺒﻀﻟﺍ،ﺔﻗﺍﺪﺼﻟﺍﻭ،ﻊﺿﻮﻟﺍﻭ ﻊﻣ ﻲﻋﺎﻤﺘﺟﻻﺍﺕﺎﻋﺎﻨﺼﻟﺍ ﺏﺎﺤﺻﺃ،ﻙﻼﻣﻭ ﲔﻴﻌﺟﺮﻟﺍ ﻲﺿﺍﺭﻷﺍ. 
ﺔﻳﺭﻮﻬﻤﳉﺍ 
ﻡﺎﻋ ﺔﻴﻧﺎﺒﺳﻷﺍ ﺔﻳﺭﻮﻬﻤﳉﺍ ﺕﺪﻟﻭ1931.ﺎﻫﺪﻨﻋ ﻝﺎﻤﻌﻟﺍ ﺪﻘﺘﻋﺍ،ﺕﺍﻮﻨﺴﻟ ﺍﻮﺣﺯﺭ ﻦﻳﺬﻟﺍ ﻥﻮﺣﻼﻔﻟﺍﻭﺚﻳﺪﲢ ﻢﺘﻳ ﻑﻮﺳ ﻪﻧﺃ ﺔﻳﺭﻮﺗﺎﺘﻜﻳﺪﻟﺍ ﲑﻧ ﺖﲢﺪﻠﺒﻟﺍ،ﻦﺴﺤﺘﻟﺍ ﰲ ﻢﻬﺘﺸﻴﻌﻣ ﻑﻭﺮﻇ ﺃﺪﺒﺘﺳﻭ.  ﺎﺌﻃﺎﺧ ﻥﺎﻛ ﻢﻫﺩﺎﻘﺘﻋﺍ ﻦﻜﻟ.ﻲﻔﻳ ﺪﺣﺍﻭ ﻝﺎﺜﻣﻚﻟﺫ ﺕﺎﺒﺛﺇ ﺽﺮﻐﺑ.ﺔﻳﺭﻮﻬﻤﳉﺍ ﺔﻣﻮﻜﳊﺍ ﺖﻣﺎﻗﰲ ﺮﻈﻨﻟﺍ ﱃﻮﺘﻴﻟ ﻲﻋﺍﺭﺰﻟﺍ ﺡﻼﺻﻹﺍ ﺪﻬﻌﻣ ﺀﺎﺸﻧﺈﺑﻲﺿﺍﺭﻷﺍ ﻊﻳﺯﻮﺗ ﺓﺩﺎﻋﺇ.ﻑﺍﺮﺘﻋﺎﺑ،ﻪﺴﻔﻧ ﺪﻬﻌﳌﺍ ﻪﳎﺎﻧﺮﺑ ﻥﺎﻛﺎﻧﺮﻗ ﻕﺮﻐﺘﺴﻴﻟﻼﻣﺎﻛﻪﻘﻴﺒﻄﺗ ﻢﺘﻴﻟ.  ﲔﻳﺭﻮﻬﻤﳉﺍ ﻒﻟﺎﲢ ﻢﻘﻳ ﱂ،ﲔﻴﻃﺍﺮﻘﳝﺪﻟﺍﻭﻡﺎﻋ ﺔﻄﻠﺴﻟﺍ ﱃﺇ ﻞﺻﻭ ﻱﺬﻟﺍ ﲔﻴﻋﺎﻤﺘﺟﻻﺍ1931ﲔﺴﲢ ﻞﺟﺃ ﻦﻣ ﻞﻴﻠﻘﻟﺎﺑ ﻯﻮﺳﺔﻴﺸﻴﻌﳌﺍ ﻑﻭﺮﻈﻟﺍﻝﺎﻤﻌﻟﺍ ﻦﻣ ﺔﻘﺣﺎﺴﻟﺍ ﺔﻴﺒﻠﻏﻸﻟ.ﺔﻟﺎﻄﺒﻟﺍ ﺐﺴﻧ ﺖﻴﻘﺑﻴﻟﺎﻋ،ﻝﺎﻤﻌﻟﺍ ﺕﺎﻤﻈﻨﻣ ﺖﻧﺎﻋﻭ ،ﺔ ﺔﺻﺎﺧﺍﺩﺎﲢ ﲏﻃﻮﻟﺍ ﱄﺍﺭﺪﻴﻔﻧﻮﻜﻟﺍ ﻝﺎﻤﻌﻟﺍﻘﻟﺍ ﻦﻣ ،ﻤ ﻊﻣ ﻊ  ﺎﻬﺋﺎﻀﻋﺃ ﻦﻣ ﺪﻳﺪﻌﻟﺍ ﻝﺎﻘﺘﻋﺍ.ﻝﻮﻠﲝﻦﻣ ﻮﻴﻧﻮﻳ ﻡﺎﻌﻟﺍ1933ﻙﺎﻨﻫ ﻥﺎﻛ9,000ﻞﻘﺘﻌﻣ ﻲﺳﺎﻴﺳ. ﺃ ﻯﺪﺤﺘﺗ ﻥﺃ ﺔﻣﻮﻜﳊﺍ ﺖﻀﻓﺭﺻﺏﺎﺤ ،ﺶﻴﳉﺍ ﻁﺎﺒﺿﻭ ،ﻲﺿﺍﺭﻷﺍ ﻙﻼﻣﻭ ،ﺕﺎﻋﺎﻨﺼﻟﺍﺔﻔﻗﺎﺳﻷﺍﻭ.ﱵﻟﺍ ﺔﻠﻘﻟﺍ ﻩﺬﳍ ﻯﺪﺼﺘﺗ ﻥﺃ ﻞﺒﻘﺗ ﱂﺓﻭﺮﺜﻟﺍ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺕﺮﻄﻴﺳﺫﻮﻔﻨﻟﺍﻭ.ﺕﺎﺑﺎﺨﺘﻧﺍ ﰲﻭ 1933ﱃﺇ ﻞﺻﻭ ﲏﻴﳝ ﻑﻼﺘﺋﺍ ﻞﺑﺎﻘﻣ ﺍﻭﺮﺴﺧﺔﻄﻠﺴﻟﺍ. ﺎﻫﺪﻨﻋـﺑ ﻑﺮﻋ ﺎﻣ ﺃﺪﺑ"ﻭﺮﺠﻴﻧ ﻮﻨﻴﻴﺑ"ﲔﺘﻨﺴﻟﺍ ، ﻦﻳﻭﺍﺩﻮﺴﻟﺍ.ﻡﻮﺠﳍﺎﺑ ﲔﻤﻴﻟﺍ ﺃﺪﺑ.ﻥﻵﺍ ﺢﺒﺻﺃ ﺓﻭﺮﺜﻟﺍ ﻒﻠﺣ،ﺫﻮﻔﻨﻟﺍﻭ،ﺔﻟﻭﺪﻟﺍ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺍﺮﻄﻴﺴﻣ ﲑﻣﺪﺗ ﰲ ﻪﻌﻗﻮﻣ ﻝﺎﻤﻌﺘﺳﺍ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺎﻤﻤﺼﻣ ﻥﺎﻛﻭﺔﺣﺩﺎﻜﻟﺍ ﺔﻘﺒﻄﻟﺍ ﺔﻣﻭﺎﻘﻣ،ﲔﺣﻼﻔﻟﺍﻭ.ﻢﻬﻴﻠﻋ ﻥﺎﻛ ﻝﺎﻤﻌﻟﺍ ﺏﺎﺴﺣ ﻰﻠﻋ ﻢﺍﺯﺎﻴﺘﻣﺍ ﺔﻧﺎﻴﺻ. 
 
ﺎﻳﺭﻮﺘﺳﺃ 
ﳝ ﱂ ﻊﺒﻄﻟﺎﺑﺮ ﻡﺍﺮﻜﻟﺍ ﺭﻭﺮﻣ ﺍﺬﻫ.ﺩﺎﲢﻻﺍ ﻡﺎﻗ ﺴﻔﻧ ﻢﻴﻈﻨﺘﺑ ﱄﺍﺭﺪﻴﻔﻧﻮﻜﻟﺍﻪ ﻊﻴﻄﺘﺴﻳ ﺎﻣ ﻞﻀﻓﺄﻛﺔﻣﻮﻜﳊﺍ ﺪﺿ.ﺖﻌﻟﺪﻧﺍﻭﰲ ﺎﻴﻧﻮﻟﺎﺗﺎﻛ ﰲ ﺔﺿﺎﻔﺘﻧﺍ ﺔﻣﻮﻜﳊﺍ ﲑﻴﻐﺗ ﺐﻘﻋ ،ﱪﻤﺴﻳﺩ.ﺖﻘﺤﺳ ﺪﻌﺑ ﺔﺿﺎﻔﺘﻧﻻﺍ10ﺎﻬﻣﺎﻴﻗ ﻦﻣ ﻡﺎﻳﺃ.ﺔﻨﺴﻟﺍ ﰲ ﺔﻴﻟﺎﺘﻟﺍﺭﺎﺛﺀﺎﻀﻋﺃ ﻝﺎﻤﻌﻟﺍﻻﺍﱃﺇ ﱄﺍﺭﺪﻴﻔﻧﻮﻜﻟﺍ ﺩﺎﲢ ﰲ ﻢﻬﺋﻼﻣﺯ ﺐﻧﺎﺟﻝﺎﻤﻌﻠﻟ ﻡﺎﻌﻟﺍ ﺩﺎﲢﻻﺍ)ﻱﺬﻟﺍ ﻲﻛﺍﺮﺘﺷﻻﺍ ﺏﺰﳊﺍ ﻪﻴﻠﻋ ﺮﻄﻴﺴﻳ ﻥﺎﻛ(ﻢﻴﻠﻗﺇ ﺱﺎﻳﺮﺘﺳﻭﺃ.ﻭ،ﺝﺎﺘﻧﻹﺍ ﻞﺋﺎﺳﻭ ﻰﻠﻋ ﻝﺎﻤﻌﻟﺍ ﺮﻄﻴﺳ ﻪﺟﻭ ﰲ ﺡﻼﺴﻟﺍ ﻡﺎﻌﻟﺍ ﺩﺎﲢﻻﺍ ﺀﺎﻀﻋﺃ ﻊﻓﺭﻭﺔﻟﻭﺪﻟﺍ.ﻲﻗﺎﺑ ﻦﻋ ﲔﻟﺰﻌﻨﻣ ﺍﻮﻧﺎﻛ ﻆﳊﺍ ﺀﻮﺴﻟﺪﻠﺒﻟﺍ.ﻭﺎﻣﺪﻨﻋﺔﻗﻮﺒﺴﻣ ﲑﻏ ﺔﲝﺬﻣ ﺖﻌﻗﻭ ﺍﻮﻣﺰﻫ ﺃﻰﻠﻋ ﻞﻘﻳ ﻻ ﺎﻣ ﺎﻬﻴﻓ ﻡﺪﻋ3,000ﻥﺎﺴﻧﺇ.  ﻪﻴﻓ ﺕﱪﺟﺃ ﻱﺬﻟﺍ ﺖﻗﻮﻟﺍ ﻝﻮﻠﲝﻰﻠﻋ ﺔﻣﻮﻜﳊﺍﻲﺤﻨﺘﻟﺍ،ﻭﺮﻳﺍﱪﻓ ﰲ ﺕﺎﺑﺎﺨﺘﻧﻻﺍ ﺔﻣﺎﻗﺇ1936، ﻙﺎﻨﻫ ﻥﺎﻛ30,000ﻲﺳﺎﻴﺳ ﻞﻘﺘﻌﻣ.ﺕﺯﺎﻓ ﺑﺕﺎﺑﺎﺨﺘﻧﻻﺎ ﻦﻣ ﻑﻼﺘﺋﺍ ﻲﻫﻭ ،ﺔﻴﺒﻌﺸﻟﺍ ﺔﻬﺒﳉﺍﺪﻟﺍﻭ ،ﲔﻳﺭﻮﻬﻤﳉﺍ،ﲔﻴﻋﺎﻤﺘﺟﻻﺍ ﲔﻴﻃﺍﺮﻘﳝ ﻲﻴﻨﻴﻟﺎﺘﺳﻭﻲﻋﻮﻴﺸﻟﺍ ﺏﺰﳊﺍ.ﻢﻫﺯﻮﻓ ﺐﺒﺳ ﻥﺎﻛ ﻲﺴﻴﺋﺮﻟﺍﱂ ﱄﺍﺭﺪﻴﻔﻧﻮﻜﻟﺍ ﺩﺎﲢﻻﺍ ﻥﺃﺔﻠﻤﲝ ﻢﻘﻳﺕﺎﺑﺎﺨﺘﻧﻻﺍ ﺔﻌﻃﺎﻘﳌ ﻝﺎﻤﻌﻟﺍ ﺓﻮﻋﺪﻟ.ﻥﺎﻛ ﺪﻘﻟﻦﻣﺆﻳ ﻥﺎﻛ ﻪﻧﻷ ﺎﻘﺑﺎﺳ ﺔﻠﻤﳊﺍ ﻩﺬ ﻡﻮﻘﻳ ﺩﺎﲢﻻﺍ،ﺱﺎﺳﻷﺎﺑ ﺔﻋﺪﺧ ﻮﻫ ﺏﺎﺨﺘﻧﻻﺍ ﻕﻭﺪﻨﺻ ﻥﺄﺑﹼﻜﳝ ﻥﺎﻛ ﺚﻴﺣﻻ ،ﻚﻤﻜﳛ ﻦﻣ ﺭﺎﺘﲣ ﻥﺃ ﻦﻣ ﻚﻨ ﻻ ﻡﺃ ﺎﻣﻮﻜﳏ ﻥﻮﻜﺗ ﻥﺃ ﺪﻳﺮﺗ ﺖﻨﻛ ﻥﺇ.ﻦﻣ ﻻﺪﺑﻋ ﻥﺃ ﺍﻮﻟﺎﻗ ﻚﻟﺫﻰﻠﻋ ﺩﺎﻤﺘﻋﻻﺍ ﻝﺎﻤﻌﻟﺍ ﻰﻠ ﻢﻬﺘﻴﳘﺃﺔﻴﻋﺎﻨﺼﻟﺍﻉﺎﺿﻭﻷﺍ ﲑﻴﻐﺘﻟ.  ﻜﻟﺍ ﺩﺎﲢﻻﺍ ﺖﻤﺻ ﺓﺮﳌﺍ ﻩﺬﻫﺎﻛﺭﺎﺗ ﱄﺍﺭﺪﻴﻔﻧﻮ ﺫﺎﲣﺍ ﻩﺩﺍﺮﻓﻷﺭﺍﺮﻗﺖﻳﻮﺼﺘﻟﺍ،ﺔﻌﻃﺎﻘﳌﺍ ﻭﺃ. ﻥﺃﻭ ﺔﺻﺎﺧ ،ﺍﻮﺗﻮﺻ ﺪﻗ ﻢﺃ ﺞﺋﺎﺘﻨﻟﺍ ﺕﺮﻬﻇﺃﲔﻠﻘﺘﻌﳌﺍ ﻦﻋ ﻡﺎﻋ ﻮﻔﻌﺑ ﺕﺪﻋﻭ ﺔﻴﺒﻌﺸﻟﺍ ﺔﻬﺒﳉﺍ. ﻥﺃ ﻝﺎﻤﻌﻟﺍ ﺮﻈﺘﻨﻳ ﱂ ﻚﻟﺫ ﻦﻣ ﻢﻏﺮﻟﺎﺑﻑﺮﺼﺘﺗﻢﻬﺴﻔﻧﺄﺑ ﻥﻮﺠﺴﻟﺍ ﺍﻮﺤﺘﻓ ﻞﺑ ،ﺔﻣﻮﻜﳊﺍ،ﻢﻬﻗﺎﻓﺭ ﺍﻮﺟﺮﺧﺃﻭ.ﻚﻟﺫ ﺪﻨﻋ ﺮﻣﻷﺍ ﻒﻗﻮﺘﻳ ﱂﻭ. ﻡﻮﺠﳍﺍ ﺀﺪﺒﻟ ﺎﻌﻓﺍﺩ ﺕﺎﺑﺎﺨﺘﻧﻻﺍ ﺞﺋﺎﺘﻧ ﺖﻧﺎﻛ.ﺪﻘﻟﺔﻣﻮﻜﳊﺍ ﻦﻜﺗ ﱂ ﻥﺇﻭ ،ﲑﻴﻐﺘﻟﺍ ﻞﺟﺃ ﻦﻣ ﺍﻮﺗﻮﺻﻢﻬﺴﻔﻧﺄﺑ ﻪﻧﻮﻘﻘﺤﻴﺳ ﺍﻮﻧﺎﻛ ،ﻢﳍ ﻪﻘﻘﺤﺘﺳ. 
ﺕﺎﺑﺍﺮﺿﻹﺍ 
ﲔﺑﺓﺭﻮﺜﻟﺍﻭ ،ﺮﻳﺍﱪﻓ ﰲ ﺖﻤﻴﻗﺃ ﱵﻟﺍ ﺕﺎﺑﺎﺨﺘﻧﻻﺍﻙﺎﻨﻫ ﻥﺎﻛ ،ﻮﻴﻟﻮﻳ ﰲ ﺔﻴﺷﺎﻔﻟﺍ113،ﺎﻣﺎﻋ ﺎﺑﺍﺮﺿﺇﻭ228ﻭ ،ﺎﻴﺋﺰﺟ ﺎﻣﺎﻋ ﺎﺑﺍﺮﺿﺇ145،ﺍﲑﺠﻔﺗ ﻭ269ﻭ ،ﻼﻴﺘﻗ1287،ﺎﳛﺮﺟﻭ215،ﺍﺀﺍﺪﺘﻋﺍ ﻭ160ﺲﺋﺎﻨﻜﻟ ﻕﺮﺣ ﺔﺛﺩﺎﺣ.ﺍﺬﻫ ﻞﻛ ﻦﻜﻳ ﱂ ﺀﺰﺟ ﻊﺒﻄﻟﺎﺑﻱﺬﻟﺍ ﺔﻴﺒﻌﺸﻟﺍ ﺔﻬﺒﳉﺍ ﺞﻣﺎﻧﺮﺑ ﻦﻣ ﺍﺎﻌﺋﺎﻣ ﻥﺎﻛ،ﻛﺮﻣﻭﻰﻠﻋ ﻅﺎﻔﳊﺍ ﻩﺎﲡ ﺱﺎﺳﻷﺎﺑ ﺍﺰ  ﺔﻴﺷﺎﻔﻟﺍ ﺪﺿ ﺓﺪﺣﻮﻟﺍ.ﻢﻴﻄﲢ ﱃﺇ ﻑﺪﻬﻳ ﻦﻜﻳ ﱂﺔﻴﻧﺎﺒﺳﻷﺍ ﺔﺒﺨﻨﻟﺍ ﺔﻄﻠﺳﻭ ،ﺔﻴﻟﺎﲰﺃﺮﻟﺍ.ﻦﻣ ﻢﻏﺮﻟﺎﺑﻲﻛﺍﺮﺘﺷﻻﺍ ﺏﺰﳊﺍ ﻦﻣ ﺕﺎﻋﺎﻄﻗ ﺖﻄﲣ ﻚﻟﺫﺩﺎﲢﻻﺍ ﺀﺎﻀﻋﺃ ﻦﻣ ﻢﻬﻀﻌﺑ ﻢﻀﻧﺍﻭ ،ﺔﻬﺒﳉﺍ ﺞﻣﺎﻧﺮﺑﱃﺇ ﻡﺎﻌﻟﺍﰲ ﱄﺍﺭﺪﻴﻔﻧﻮﻜﻟﺍ ﺩﺎﲢﻻﺍ ﰲ ﻢﻬﻗﺎﻓﺭﺔﻴﺒﻠﺳ ﺔﺑﺭﺎﳏﺔﻣﻮﻜﳊﺍ.  ﺏﺮﺿﺃ30,000ﻢﻴﻠﻗﺇ ﰲ ﻢﺟﺎﻨﻟﺍ ﻝﺎﻤﻋ ﻦﻣﻝﻮﻠﲝﻭ ،ﻮﻴﻧﻮﻳ ﻦﻣ ﺮﺸﻋ ﺚﻟﺎﺜﻟﺍ ﰲ ﺎﻳﺭﻮﺘﺳﺃﻴﻧﻮﻳ ﻦﻣ ﺮﺸﻋ ﻊﺳﺎﺘﻟﺍﻮ ﻥﺎﻛ90,000ﻝﺎﻤﻋ ﻦﻣ ﺏﺍﺮﺿﺇ ﰲ ﺩﻼﺒﻟﺍ ﺀﺎﳓﺃ ﰲ ﻢﺟﺎﻨﳌﺍﻞﻤﻌﻟﺍ ﻦﻋ.ﻞﻛ ﰲ ﻞﻗﻷﺍ ﻰﻋ ﺪﺣﺍﻭ ﻡﺎﻋ ﺏﺍﺮﺿﺇ ﻙﺎﻨﻫ ﻥﺎﻛﺔﻤﻬﻣ ﺔﻨﻳﺪﻣ.ﻮﻴﻟﻮﻳ ﻡﺎﻳﺃ ﻝﻭﺃ ﰲ ﲔﺑﺮﻀﳌﺍ ﺩﺪﻋ ﺩﺍﺯﻣ ﻦﻋﺏﺮﻀﻣ ﻥﻮﻴﻠ .ﱵﻟﺍ ﲔﺑﺮﻀﳌﺍ ﺐﻟﺎﻄﻣ ﻦﻜﺗ ﱂ ﺖﻠﴰ ﻞﺑ ،ﻂﻘﻓ ﺔﻳﺩﺎﺼﺘﻗﺍ ﺎﻬﻠﺟﺃ ﻦﻣ ﺍﻮﻠﺗﺎﻗﺎﻀﻳﺃ ﺔﻴﺳﺎﻴﺳ ﺐﻟﺎﻄﻣ.ﺓﺮﻫﺎﻈﻣ ﻙﺎﻨﻫ ﺖﻧﺎﻛﺓﺭﺎﻔﺴﻟﺍ ﻡﺎﻣﺃ ﻮﻴﻟﻮﻳ ﻦﻣ ﺮﺸﻋ ﻊﺑﺍﺮﻟﺍ ﰲ ﺓﲑﺒﻛﺔﻴﻠﻳﺯﺍﱪﻟﺍ.ﻝﻮﻘﺗ ﺕﺎﺘﻓﻻ ﻝﺎﻤﻌﻟﺍ ﻞﲪ" :ﺀﺍﺭﺯﻮﻟﺍ ﺕﻮﳝ ﺎﻤﻨﻴﺑ ﻢﺎﻗﻭﺄﺑ ﻥﻮﻌﺘﻤﺘﺴﻳ ﻥﻮﻳﺭﻮﻬﻤﳉﺍﻝﺎﻤﻌﻟﺍ". ﺎﻬﻌﺳﻮﺑ ﺎﻣ ﺔﻳﺭﻮﻬﻤﳉﺍ ﺔﻣﻮﻜﳊﺍ ﺖﻠﻌﻓ ﺎﻤﻨﻴﺑﻲﻋﻮﻴﺸﻟﺍ ﺏﺰﳊﺍ ﻥﺍﺩﺃ ،ﻊﺿﻮﻟﺍ ﻰﻠﻋ ﺓﺮﻄﻴﺴﻠﻟﻝﺎﻤﻌﻟﺍ ﲔﺑ ﻡﺍﺪﺼﻟﺍ ﺖﺒﺒﺳ ﺎﻷ ﺕﺎﺑﺍﺮﺿﻹﺍ،ﺔﻣﻮﻜﳊﺍﻭ.،ﺎﻫﺮﺧﺁ ﻦﻋ ﻥﻮﺠﺴﻟﺍ ﺔﻣﻮﻜﳊﺍ ﺕﻸﻣﱄﺍﺭﺪﻴﻔﻧﻮﻜﻟﺍ ﺩﺎﲢﻻﺍ ﺐﺗﺎﻜﻣ ﺖﻘﻠﻏﺃﻭ. 
ﺏﻼﻘﻧﻻﺍ 
ﺱﺄﻳ ﺩﺎﻳﺩﺯﺎﺑﺕﺎﻘﺒﻄﻟﺍ،ﺔﻤﻛﺎﳊﺍﺺﻠﺨﺘﻟﺍ ﺕﺭﺮﻗ ﳝﺪﻟﺍ ﻦﻣﻝﺎﻤﻌﻟﺍ ﺕﺎﻤﻈﻨﻣ ﲑﻣﺪﺗﻭ ،ﺔﻴﺑﺎﻴﻨﻟﺍ ﺔﻴﻃﺍﺮﻘ .ﻪﻧﺃ ﻥﻮﻤﻠﻌﻳ ﻢﻷ ،ﺎﻤﺋﺍﺩ ﺔﻴﺷﺎﻔﻟﺍ ﺩﺎﻴﺳﻷﺍ ﻱﺩﺎﻌﻳ ﻻﺎﻧﺎﻴﺣﺃ ﺎﻬﻴﻟﺇ ﺀﻮﺠﻠﻟﺍ ﻢﻬﻨﻜﳝ .ﻢﻭﺮﺛ ﻥﺇ، ﺕﺍﺭﺎﺒﺘﻋﻻﺍ ﻞﻛ ﻦﻣ ﻢﻫﺃ ﺔﻟﺰﻨﻣ ﰲ ﰐﺄﺗ ﻢﺍﺯﺎﻴﺘﻣﺍﻭﻯﺮﺧﻷﺍ.ﺎﻴﻧﺎﳌﺃ ﰲ،ﺐﳚ ﻪﻧﺃ ﺍﻭﺭﺮﻗ ﺎﻴﻟﺎﻄﻳﺇﻭ ﻦﻣ ﺍﻮﻨﻜﻤﺘﻴﻟ ﺔﻤﻈﻨﳌﺍ ﺔﻠﻣﺎﻌﻟﺍ ﺔﻘﺒﻄﻟﺍ ﻖﺤﺳﺮﺜﺑ ﻚﺴﻤﺘﻟﺍﺡﺎﺑﺭﻷﺍ ﲏﺟ ﰲ ﺍﻭﺮﻤﺘﺴﻳﻭ ،ﻢﺍﻭ.ﺎﻣ ﺍﺬﻫﻭ ،ﺔﻳﺍﺪﺒﻟﺍ ﰲ ﺔﻴﺷﺎﻔﻟﺍ ﻢﻬﻀﻌﺑ ﻱﺩﺎﻌﻳ ﺪﻗ،ﺎﻴﻧﺎﺒﺳﺃ ﰲ ﺾﻌﺒﻟﺍ ﻪﻠﻌﻓﻨﻜﻟﻭﻢﻬ ﺎ ﺍﻮﻠﺒﻗﲔﺣ ﺍﻭﺃﺭﻢﻫﺫﻮﻔﻧ ﻰﻠﻋ ﻅﺎﻔﺤﻠﻟ ﺔﻳﺭﻭﺮﺿ ﺎﺃ.ﻢﻴﻠﻗﺇ ﰲ ﺽﺭﺎﻋ ﻚﺳﺎﺒﻟﺍﻴﺷﺎﻔﻟﺍ ﻥﻮﻴﻣﻮﻘﻟﺍﲔ ﺔﻳﺍﺪﺒﻟﺍ ﰲ. ﲔﺑ ﺭﺎﻴﺘﺧﻻﺍ ﻢﻬﻴﻠﻋ ﻥﺃ ﺢﻀﺗﺍ ﺎﻣﺪﻨﻋ ﻦﻜﻟﻭ

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