1.Solute, such as electrolytes, is the mover; not thewater 2.Types: simple and facilitated (movement of largewater-soluble molecules)
: water and solutes move from area of higher hydrostatic pressure to lower hydrostatic pressure1.Hydrostatic pressure is created by pumping action of heart and gravity against capillary wall2.Usually occurs across capillary membranes
: molecules move across cellmembranes against concentration gradient; requiresenergy, e.g. Na – K pumpV.Mechanisms that Regulate Homeostasis: How the body adaptsto fluid and electrolyte changesA.
: primary regulator of water intake (thirst center in brain)B.
: regulator of volume and osmolality bycontrolling excretion of water and electrolytesC.
: responseto a drop in blood pressure; results from vasoconstrictionand sodium regulation by aldosteroneD.
: hormone to regulate water excretion; responds to osmolality and blood volumeE.
Atrial natriuretic factor
: hormone from atrial heartmuscle in response to fluid excess; causes increased urineoutput by blocking aldosterone
Fluid and Electrolyte Imbalances
Fluid Volume Deficit (too little fluid in body)A.Common Stimuli: