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Fluids & Electrolytes

Fluids & Electrolytes

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Published by: api-3722454 on Oct 15, 2008
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03/18/2014

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Fluids in Human Body
I.Fluid Status of Human BodyA.Homeostasis: state of the body when maintaining a state of  balance in the presence of constantly changing conditionsB.Includes balance of fluid, electrolytes, and acid-base balanceC.Body water intake and output approximately equal (2500mL/24 hr.)II.Body Fluid CompositionA.Water: 60% of body weightB.Electrolytes: substances that become charged particles insolution1.Cations: positively charged (e.g. Na
+
, K 
+
)2.Anions: negatively charged (e.g. Cl
-
)3.Both are measured in milliequivalents per liter (mEq/L)C.Osmolality: concentration of a solution measured inmilliosmoles per liter D.Balance of hydrostatic pressure and osmotic pressureregulates movement of water between intravascular andinterstitial spacesIII. Body Fluid Distribution:A.2 body compartments:1.Intracellular fluids (ICF): fluids within cells of body[major intracellular electrolytes: Potassium (K 
+
),Magnesium (Mg
+2
)]2.Extracellular fluids (ECF): fluid outside cells; [major extracellular electrolytes: Sodium (Na
+
),Chloride(Cl
-
)]; this is where transportation of nutrients, oxygen, and waste products occursB.Locations of ECF:1.Interstitial: fluid between most cells
1
 
2.Intravascular: fluid within blood vessels; also called plasma3.Transcellular: fluids of body including urine,digestive secretion, cerebrospinal, pleural, synovial,intraocular, gonadal, pericardialIV.Mechanisms of Body Fluid Movement (i.e. movement of solutes, solvents across different extracellular locations)A.
Osmosis
: water is mover; water moves from lower concentration to higher concentration1.Normal Osmolality of ICF and ECF: 275 – 295mOsm/kg2.Types of solutions according to osmolalitya.Isotonic: all solutions with osmolality same asthat of plasmaBody cells placed in isotonic fluid: neither shrink nor swell b.Hypertonic: fluid with greater concentration of solutes than plasmaCells in hypertonic solution: water in cellsmoves to outside to equalize concentrations:cells will shrink c.Hypotonic: fluid with lower concentration of solutes than plasmaCells in hypotonic solution: water outside cellsmoves to inside of cells: cells will swell andeventually burst (hemolyze)3.Different intravenous solutions, used to correct someabnormal conditions, categorized according toosmolality:a.Hypertonic: 5%glucose ,45% NaCl solution b.Isotonic: 9% NaCl, Lactated Ringers solutionc.Hypotonic: 45% NaCl
B.
Diffusion
:
solute molecules move from higher concentration to lower concentration
2
 
1.Solute, such as electrolytes, is the mover; not thewater 2.Types: simple and facilitated (movement of largewater-soluble molecules)
C.
Filtration
: water and solutes move from area of higher hydrostatic pressure to lower hydrostatic pressure1.Hydrostatic pressure is created by pumping action of heart and gravity against capillary wall2.Usually occurs across capillary membranes
D.
Active Transport
: molecules move across cellmembranes against concentration gradient; requiresenergy, e.g. Na – K pumpV.Mechanisms that Regulate Homeostasis: How the body adaptsto fluid and electrolyte changesA.
Thirst
: primary regulator of water intake (thirst center in brain)B.
Kidneys
: regulator of volume and osmolality bycontrolling excretion of water and electrolytesC.
Renin-angiotension-aldosterone mechanism
: responseto a drop in blood pressure; results from vasoconstrictionand sodium regulation by aldosteroneD.
Antidiuretic hormone
: hormone to regulate water excretion; responds to osmolality and blood volumeE.
Atrial natriuretic factor
: hormone from atrial heartmuscle in response to fluid excess; causes increased urineoutput by blocking aldosterone
Fluid and Electrolyte Imbalances
I
.
Fluid Volume Deficit (too little fluid in body)A.Common Stimuli:
3

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