1. Division and Euclidean Algorithms

2. Unique Factorization of Integers

3. Unique Factorization of Polynomials

5. Row Reduction

6. Matrix Operations

7. Problems

1. Spanning, Linear Independence, and Bases

2. Vector Spaces Deﬁned by Matrices

3. Linear Maps

7. Determinants

9. Bases in the Inﬁnite-Dimensional Case

10. Problems

1. Inner Products and Orthonormal Sets

2. Adjoints

3. Spectral Theorem

4. Problems

1. Groups and Subgroups

2. Quotient Spaces and Homomorphisms

3. Direct Products and Direct Sums

4. Rings and Fields

5. Polynomials and Vector Spaces

6. Group Actions and Examples

7. Semidirect Products

10. Sylow Theorems

11. Categories and Functors

FIGURE 4.11. Universal mapping property of a product in a category

12. Problems

CHAPTER V
Theory of a Single Linear Transformation

1. Introduction

2. Determinants over Commutative Rings with Identity

3. Characteristic and Minimal Polynomials

4. Projection Operators

5. Primary Decomposition

6. Jordan Canonical Form

FIGURE 5.1. Example of a nilpotent matrix in Jordan form

FIGURE 5.2. Powers of the nilpotent matrix in Figure 5.1

7. Computations with Jordan Form

8. Problems

1. Bilinear Forms and Matrices

2. Symmetric Bilinear Forms

3. Alternating Bilinear Forms

4. Hermitian Forms

5. Groups Leaving a Bilinear Form Invariant

6. Tensor Product of Two Vector Spaces

7. Tensor Algebra

8. Symmetric Algebra

9. Exterior Algebra

1. Free Groups

2. Subgroups of Free Groups

4. Group Representations

5. Burnside’s Theorem

6. Extensions of Groups

CHAPTER VIII
Commutative Rings and Their Modules

1. Examples of Rings and Modules

2. Integral Domains and Fields of Fractions

3. Prime and Maximal Ideals

4. Unique Factorization

5. Gauss’s Lemma

6. Finitely Generated Modules

8. Noetherian Rings and the Hilbert Basis Theorem

9. Integral Closure

10. Localization and Local Rings

1. Algebraic Elements

2. Construction of Field Extensions

3. Finite Fields

4. Algebraic Closure

5. Geometric Constructions by Straightedge and Compass

7. Normal Extensions

8. Fundamental Theorem of Galois Theory

9. Application to Constructibility of Regular Polygons

10. Application to Proving the Fundamental Theorem of Algebra

12. Construction of Regular Polygons

14. Proof That π Is Transcendental

15. Norm and Trace

16. Splitting of Prime Ideals in Extensions

17. Two Tools for Computing Galois Groups

18. Problems

CHAPTER X
Modules over Noncommutative Rings

1. Simple and Semisimple Modules

2. Composition Series

3. Chain Conditions

4. Hom and End for Modules

5. Tensor Product for Modules

6. Exact Sequences

APPENDIX

A1. Sets and Functions

A3. Real Numbers

A4. Complex Numbers

HINTS FOR SOLUTIONS OF PROBLEMS