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201108-IVIR Report-Cross-border extended collective licensing: a solution to online dissemination of Europe’s cultural heritage?

201108-IVIR Report-Cross-border extended collective licensing: a solution to online dissemination of Europe’s cultural heritage?

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Published by Axel Beelen
It is the final report prepared for EuropeanaConnect related to "Cross-border extended collective licensing: a solution to online dissemination of Europe’s cultural heritage?"
It is the final report prepared for EuropeanaConnect related to "Cross-border extended collective licensing: a solution to online dissemination of Europe’s cultural heritage?"

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Published by: Axel Beelen on Sep 28, 2011
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I
 NSTITUUT VOOR 
I
 NFORMATIERECHT
 
Cross-border extended collective licensing: a solution to onlinedissemination of Europe’s cultural heritage?
Final report prepared for EuropeanaConnect
Johan AxhamnLucie GuibaultU
 NIVERSITEIT VAN
A
MSTERDAM
 
Amsterdam, The NetherlandsAugust 2011
 
 
 ii 
Table of contents
List of Abbreviations..............................................................................................................................iv
 
Executive summary.................................................................................................................................v
 
1.
 
Introduction.....................................................................................................................................1
 
1.1
 
Mass-digitisation and related challenges.............................................................................2
 
1.2
 
Possible solutions................................................................................................................3
 
1.3
 
Outline of the study.............................................................................................................4
 
2.
 
Europeana and its content providers................................................................................................7
 
2.1
 
Europeana: its mission and goals........................................................................................7
 
2.2
 
Digitizing and disseminating content..................................................................................8
 
2.2.1
 
Text...............................................................................................................................9
 
2.2.2
 
Images.........................................................................................................................10
 
2.2.3
 
Audiovisual.................................................................................................................11
 
2.2.4
 
Sound...........................................................................................................................11
 
3.
 
Current legal framework...............................................................................................................13
 
3.1
 
Exceptions and limitations in Directive 2001/29/EC........................................................13
 
3.1.1
 
Beneficiaries of the limitations...................................................................................14
 
3.1.2
 
Limitation for specific acts of reproduction................................................................15
 
3.1.3
 
Limitation for use on dedicated terminals...................................................................17
 
3.2
 
Law applicable to cross-border dissemination..................................................................19
 
3.2.1
 
Principle of 
lex loci protectionis
.................................................................................19
 
3.2.2
 
The principle of country of reception..........................................................................20
 
3.2.3
 
Cross-border collective rights management................................................................21
 
4.
 
The Nordic ECL model.................................................................................................................25
 
4.1
 
Establishment of the first ECL provision..........................................................................25
 
4.2
 
The development of the ECL model until today...............................................................27
 
4.3
 
Basic features of the ECL model.......................................................................................30
 
4.3.1.
 
Eligible organization...................................................................................................30
 
4.3.2.
 
ECL agreements..........................................................................................................32
 
4.3.3.
 
Right to claim individual remuneration.......................................................................36
 
4.3.4.
 
Possibility to opt out....................................................................................................37
 
4.3.5.
 
Mediation and arbitration............................................................................................38
 
4.3.6.
 
General conclusions on the ECL model......................................................................41
 
4.4
 
ECL provisions in relation to international and EU norms...............................................44
 
4.4.1.
 
ECL provisions in relation to international copyright norms......................................44
 
4.4.2.
 
ECL provisions in relation to EU norms.....................................................................52
 
4.5
 
The ECL model applied to Europeana content providers..................................................56
 
4.5.1.
 
Eligible users: Europeana content providers...............................................................56
 
4.5.2.
 
Scope of ECL provision for the benefit of Europeana content providers...................57
 
4.5.3.
 
Other general features of the ECL model....................................................................58
 
4.5.4.
 
Additional provisions..................................................................................................59
 
5.
 
Cross-border dissemination...........................................................................................................61
 
5.1.
 
Country of transmission rule.............................................................................................61
 
5.1.1.
 
The satellite broadcasting model.................................................................................62
 
5.1.2.
 
Country of transmission rule in the context of Europeana..........................................65
 
 
 iii5.2.
 
Promoting multi-territorial licensing.................................................................................67
 
6.
 
Conclusion.....................................................................................................................................70
 
7.
 
Bibliography..................................................................................................................................73
 
7.1.
 
Official documents............................................................................................................73
 
7.2.
 
Case law............................................................................................................................76
 
7.3
 
Books, articles and reports................................................................................................76
 

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