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Unida 1 Gu a 2 Teorema Del Binomio

Unida 1 Gu a 2 Teorema Del Binomio

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\u2211
UNIDAD 1 (2\u00aa parte)
Teorema de Binomio
BIOMATEMATICAS I
LICENCIATURA EN BIOTECNOLOGIA
Prof. Rolando Mu\u00f1oz Garay
1
Gu\u00eda 2: Teorem a del Binom io
OBJ ETIVO
:
Desarrollar potencias de binomios
INTRODUCCION:Esta unidad consiste en encontrar una f\u00f3rmula que permita obtener el desarrollo de
un binomio con exponenten , donden es un n\u00famero natural o encontrar un t\u00e9rmino de \u00e9l, sin necesidad
de desarrollarlo completamente.
DESARROLLO:Sean a y b dos n\u00fameros reales y n natural :
(a + b )1 = a + b
(a + b )2 = a2 + 2a b + b2
( a + b )3 = a3 + 3a2 b + 3 a b2 + b3
( a + b )4 = a4 +4 a3 b + 6 a2 b2 + 4 a b3 + b4
( a + b )5 = a5 +5a4 b +10 a3 b2 + 10 a2 b3 + 5 a b4 + b5
Se pueden observar las siguientes caracter\u00edsticas :
1) El n\u00famero de t\u00e9rminos del desarrollo de( a + b )n es (n + 1)
2) En primer t\u00e9rminoa aparece con exponenten y luego decrece hasta llegar a cero. Con el segundo
t\u00e9rminob , ocurre lo contrario.
3) Los coeficientes num\u00e9ricos se obtienen del n\u00famero combinatorionk
\ue000\ue002\ue001 \ue003\ue005\ue004con k variando desde0 an .
Resumiendo :
(
)
a
b
nka
b
n
n k
k
k
n
+
=
\ue000\ue002\ue001 \ue003\ue005\ue004
\u2212
=
0
F\u00f3rmula conocida como \u201cTeorema del binomio\u201d
Universidad Iberoamericana de Ciencias y Tecnolog\u00eda
Gu \u00eda N\u00b0 4 Teorema del Binomio
Prof. Rolando Mu\u00f1oz Garay
2
EJ ERCI CI OS RESUELTOS
1 )
1 )Calcular ( x + 6 )5
Soluci\u00f3n :
(
)
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
+ =\ue000\ue002\ue001 \ue003\ue005\ue004 \u22c5
+\ue000\ue002\ue001 \ue003\ue005\ue004 \u22c5
+\ue000\ue002\ue001 \ue003\ue005\ue004 \u22c5
+\ue000\ue002\ue001 \ue003\ue005\ue004 \u22c5
+\ue000\ue002\ue001 \ue003\ue005\ue004 \u22c5
+\ue000\ue002\ue001 \ue003\ue005\ue004 \u22c5
6
50
6
51
6
5
2
6
53
6
5
4
6
55
6
5
5 0
4 1
3 2
2 3
1 4
0 5
= +\u22c5\u22c5+ \u22c5\u22c5 + \u22c5\u22c5
+ \u22c5\u22c5
+
=+
+
+
+
+
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
5
4
3
2
5
4
3
2
5
6
10
36
10
216
5
1296 7776
30
360
2 160
6 480
7 776
.
.
.
.
.
2) .
2) .E n c u e n t r e l o s 3 p r i me r o s t \u00e9 r mi n o s e n e l d e s a r r o l l o d e
1 3
10
x y
\u2212
\ue000\ue002\ue001
\ue003\ue005\ue004
Soluci\u00f3n :
T
x
y
x
1
10
0
10
10
0
1
3
1
=\ue000\ue002\ue001 \ue003\ue005\ue004\ue000\ue002\ue001 \ue003\ue005\ue004\u2212
\ue000\ue002\ue001 \ue003\ue005\ue004=
T
x
y
x
y
x y
2
9
1
9
9
10
1
1
3
101
3
30
=\ue000\ue002\ue001 \ue003\ue005\ue004\ue000\ue002\ue001 \ue003\ue005\ue004\u2212
\ue000\ue002\ue001 \ue003\ue005\ue004=\u22c5 \u22c5\u2212 =\u2212
T
x
y
x y
x y
3
8
2
8
2
8 2
10
2
1
3
451 9
405
=\ue000\ue002\ue001 \ue003\ue005\ue004\ue000\ue002\ue001 \ue003\ue005\ue004\u2212
\ue000\ue002\ue001 \ue003\ue005\ue004=\u22c5\u22c5 =
3) .
3) .E l t \u00e9 r mi n o c e n t r a l o b t e n i d o a l d e s a r r o l l a r
ax
x
a
+
\ue000\ue002\ue001
\ue003\ue005\ue004
10
Soluci\u00f3n : El desarrollo tiene 11 t\u00e9rminos, luego el central es el sexto :
T
ax
x
a
6
5
5
10
5
=\ue000\ue002\ue001 \ue003\ue005\ue004\ue000\ue002\ue001 \ue003\ue005\ue004 \ue000\ue002\ue001 \ue003\ue005\ue004=2 5 2
2 5 2.No t e q u e e l t \u00e9 r mi n o e s i n d e p e n d i e n t e d e x , e s d e c i r , s u
valor no depende de x
4) .
4) .I n d i q u e e l v a l o r d e n p a r a q u e l o s t e r c e r o s t \u00e9 r mi n o s d e
x
x
n
2
1
+
\ue000\ue002\ue001
\ue003\ue005\ue004
y
x
x
n
3
2
1
+
\ue000\ue002\ue001
\ue003\ue005\ue004sean iguales
Soluci\u00f3n :
( )
( )
nx
x
nx
x
n
n
2
1
2
1
2
2
2
3
2
2
\ue000\ue002\ue001 \ue003\ue005\ue004
\ue000\ue002\ue001 \ue003\ue005\ue004=\ue000\ue002\ue001 \ue003\ue005\ue004
\ue000\ue002\ue001 \ue003\ue005\ue004
\u2212
\u2212
Universidad Iberoamericana de Ciencias y Tecnolog\u00eda
Gu \u00eda N\u00b0 4 Teorema del Binomio
Prof. Rolando Mu\u00f1oz Garay
3
x
x
x
x
n
n
2 4
2
3 6
4
\u2212
\u2212
\u2212
\u2212
\u22c5 =
\u22c5
x
x
n
n
n
n
2 6
3 10
2
6 3
16
\u2212
\u2212
=
\u21d2 \u2212= \u2212 \u21d2
n=4
5 )
5 )S i e l t \u00e9 r mi n o i n d e p e n d i e n t e d e x e n e l d e s a r r o l l o d e
x
x
n
2
5
3
\u2212
\ue000\ue002\ue001
\ue003\ue005\ue004
es el
q u i n t o , d e t e r mi n e e l v a l o r d e x
Sol uci \u00f3n:
P a r a q u e e l q u i n t o t \u00e9 r mi n o s e a i n d e p e n d i e n t e d e x , s u e x p o n e n t e d e b e s e r
0 :
T5=
( )
nx
x
n
4
5
3
2
4
4
\ue000\ue002\ue001 \ue003\ue005\ue004
\u2212
\ue000\ue002\ue001 \ue003\ue005\ue004
\u2212
R e c u e r d e q u e e l q u i n t o t \u00e9 r mi n o s e o b t i e n e c u a n d o k t o ma e l v a l o r
4
Entonces : x2 n - 8 x- 4 = x0
Entonces : x2 n - 1 2
= x0
Por lo tanto : 2n \u2013 12 = 0
F i n a l me n t e x = 6

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