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Homework 1 Fall 2011

Homework 1 Fall 2011

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- Homework 1 Fall 2011
- Homework 1 Fall 2011

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Published by: free testbank on Sep 29, 2011
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1. In Multiple sclerosis there is a progressive and intermittent damage tothe myelin sheath of peripheral nerves. This results in poor motor control of the affected area.Why doesdestruction of the myelin sheath affect motor control?
Neurons in the peripheral nervous system are attacked via axon demyelination. Thisdeterioration allows the axon area of the neurons to become progressivelyvulnerable as the disease progresses. This vulnerability of the demyelinated axonscauses the neuron and peripheral nervous system to become susceptible toimpulses and neural information loss; therefore motor control. When the axonbecomes more exposed to the Na+ charges outside of the axon the speed of theimpulse slows down due to action potential pathways that must be taken to reachthe axon terminal.
2. What factor would determine the maximum frequency of actionpotentials that could beconducted by an axon?
Nueral impulses are originated at the sensory stimuli. This stimuli then progressesinto an action potential (Depolarization and Repolarization), after which a refractoryphase, or step is taken. This refractory period can be measured and used todetermine the maximum frequency of action potentials (2-3ms or 500Hz). Also theamount of voltage-gated Na+ channels that are available for stimulus and transferof Na+ into the cell during the Absolute refractory period affects the maximumfrequency of action potentials produced from the Axon Hillock of the axon.
3. Johnny consumes a whole bottle of salt, (NaCl), tablets. What effectwould this have on actionpotentials?
An overload of Na+ outside of the cell would barely affect the resting actionpotential of the cell (whereas K+ would greatly affect). Yet, during the actionpotential Na+ is much more permeable to the membrane than K+, therefore Na+would diffuse into the cell more rapidly during the actual action potential. Thiswould cause either a raise in the maximum potential of the action potential orelevate the amplitude of the general depolarization from before Johnny hadconsumed the salt.
4. Lithium ions reduce the permeability of plasma membranes to sodiumions. What would be theeffect lithium ions in the extracellular fluid have on the response of aneuron to stimuli?
Because the permeability of the Na+ ions are being reduced, they would remainclosed due to the presence of the Li ions. The depolarization maximum amplitudewould be much lower because there is a lower influx of Na+ into the membrane andthe membrane is less susceptible to the Na+ stimuli due to the Li ions.
5. Tom’s father suffers from a stroke that leaves him partially paralyzedon his right side. Whattype of glial cell would you expect to find in increased numbers in the areaof the brain that isaffected by the stroke?
Common phagocytes of the central nervous system include microglia.Since anacute stroke, leading to paralysis, is a direct attach to the nuerons in parts of thebrain, the patient might have increased numbers of microglia at the sight of damaged tissue and dead cells.
6. In a condition known as hypocalcemia, the level of calcium ions in theblood and interstitial fluidis lower than normal. How would this condition affect the function of thenervous system?
In Hypocalcemia, otherwise known as hypoparathyroidism, Ca
levels are low inthe patients blood. Usually when Calcium levels are low Parathyroid hormone risesthe Calcium level in the blood. Often times hypocalcemic patient have low levels of PTH as well as Calcium, therefore having a redundant effect. Phosphorus levels inblood rise as there is no PTH to enhance the kidney's ability to remove it. Such highPhosphorus levelsretard Vitamin D activation and synthesis. Without calcium,parathyroid hormone, and phosphorus muscle contraction becomes stinted and thenervous system more excitable and sensitive. A common side effect of such anenvironment can cause seizures (hypocalcemic tetany).
7. Neurons, as with other excitable cells of the body, have two majorphysiological properties:
Irratability and conductivity
. A neuron has a positive charge on theouter surface of the cell membrane due in part to the action of an activetransport system calledthe
Sodium-Potassium pump
. This system moves
out of the cell and
the cell. The inside of the cell membrane will be negative,not onlydue to the active transport system but also because of 
intracellular proteins ,
remainnegative due to intracellular pH and keep the inside of the cell membranenegative.8. The “puffer fish” secretes a very deadly chemical known astetrodotoxin. On her recentvacation to Japan, Andrea ordered fugu chiri, (puffer soup), from the menuat a popularrestaurant in Tokyo. Andrea was subsequently hospitalized for theconsumption of incorrectlyprepared puffer soup. What effect might tetrodotoxin have on actionpotentials?
In this case Tetrodoxin would serve as a ligand to the voltage-gated receptorslocated at the nerve cell membranes. When bound, the affected nerve cells wouldnot be able to trasmit any input. This is an example of an antagonist.
What obvious symptoms could Andrea be experiencing?
Symptoms would occur 30 minutes to a few hours after injesting and range from awide variety: beginning with tingling in the lips and tongue, excessive salvation,sweating, headache, weakness, paralysis, and seizures.
How might the doctor alleviate these symptoms?
Although there is no definite cure, different methods of therapy can be taken basedon the patients symptoms. A common mechanism is to feed the patient a

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