Common phagocytes of the central nervous system include microglia.Since anacute stroke, leading to paralysis, is a direct attach to the nuerons in parts of thebrain, the patient might have increased numbers of microglia at the sight of damaged tissue and dead cells.
6. In a condition known as hypocalcemia, the level of calcium ions in theblood and interstitial fluidis lower than normal. How would this condition affect the function of thenervous system?
In Hypocalcemia, otherwise known as hypoparathyroidism, Ca
levels are low inthe patients blood. Usually when Calcium levels are low Parathyroid hormone risesthe Calcium level in the blood. Often times hypocalcemic patient have low levels of PTH as well as Calcium, therefore having a redundant effect. Phosphorus levels inblood rise as there is no PTH to enhance the kidney's ability to remove it. Such highPhosphorus levelsretard Vitamin D activation and synthesis. Without calcium,parathyroid hormone, and phosphorus muscle contraction becomes stinted and thenervous system more excitable and sensitive. A common side effect of such anenvironment can cause seizures (hypocalcemic tetany).
7. Neurons, as with other excitable cells of the body, have two majorphysiological properties:
Irratability and conductivity
. A neuron has a positive charge on theouter surface of the cell membrane due in part to the action of an activetransport system calledthe
. This system moves
out of the cell and
the cell. The inside of the cell membrane will be negative,not onlydue to the active transport system but also because of
intracellular proteins ,
remainnegative due to intracellular pH and keep the inside of the cell membranenegative.8. The “puffer fish” secretes a very deadly chemical known astetrodotoxin. On her recentvacation to Japan, Andrea ordered fugu chiri, (puffer soup), from the menuat a popularrestaurant in Tokyo. Andrea was subsequently hospitalized for theconsumption of incorrectlyprepared puffer soup. What effect might tetrodotoxin have on actionpotentials?
In this case Tetrodoxin would serve as a ligand to the voltage-gated receptorslocated at the nerve cell membranes. When bound, the affected nerve cells wouldnot be able to trasmit any input. This is an example of an antagonist.
What obvious symptoms could Andrea be experiencing?
Symptoms would occur 30 minutes to a few hours after injesting and range from awide variety: beginning with tingling in the lips and tongue, excessive salvation,sweating, headache, weakness, paralysis, and seizures.
How might the doctor alleviate these symptoms?
Although there is no definite cure, different methods of therapy can be taken basedon the patients symptoms. A common mechanism is to feed the patient a