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2005 Volume 96 Marine Biotechnology I

2005 Volume 96 Marine Biotechnology I

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Published by abavo
Screening for new metabolite from marine microbes by Thomas Schweder
Screening for new metabolite from marine microbes by Thomas Schweder

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Published by: abavo on Sep 29, 2011
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06/25/2013

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Adv Biochem Engin
/
Biotechnol (2005) 96: 1–48DOI 10.1007
/
b135781
©
Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2005Published online: 24 August 2005
ScreeningforNewMetabolitesfromMarineMicroorganisms
Thomas Schweder (
u
) · Ulrike Lindequist · Michael Lalk
Institut für Marine Biotechnologie, W.-Rathenau-Str. 49, 17489 Greifswald, German
Schweder@uni-greifswald.de
1 Introduction
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2
2 Sequencing of the Genomes of Marine Microorganisms
. . . . . . . . . . . 32.1 Completed and Ongoing Marine Sequencing Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . 32.2 Analysis of Marine Microbial Diversity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182.3 Environmental Genomics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182.4 Functional Genome Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222.4.1 Proteome Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222.4.2 Transcriptome Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232.5 Genome Sequencing and Identification of New Antimicrobial Compounds 24
3 Screening for New Metabolites
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263.1 Alternative Cultivation Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263.2 Preparation of Materials for Screening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273.3 Chemical and Physicochemical Screening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283.4 Biological Screening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283.5 High-Throughput Screening, Automation, Data Management . . . . . . . . 303.6 Metabolome Analysis Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313.7 Examples for Metabolites from Marine Microorganisms . . . . . . . . . . . 32
4 Application of Proteomics for Target Analyses of Antibacterial Compounds
41
5 Influence of Cultivation Conditions on Metabolite Production
. . . . . . . 41
6 Outloo
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
References
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Abstract
This article gives an overview of current analysis techniques for the screeningand the activity analysis of metabolites from marine (micro)organisms. The sequencingof marine genomes and the techniques of functional genomics (including transcriptome,proteome, and metabolome analyses) open up new possibilities for the screening of new metabolites of biotechnological interest. Although the sequencing of microbial marinegenomes has been somewhat limited to date, selected genome sequences of marine bac-teria and algae have already been published. This report summarizes the applicationof the techniques of functional genomics, such as transcriptome analysis in combina-tion with high-resolution two-dimensional polyacrylamide gelelectrophoresis and massspectrometry, for the screening for bioactive compounds of marine microorganisms.Furthermore, the target analysis of antimicrobial compounds by proteome or transcrip-tome analysis of bacterial model systems is described. Recent high-throughput screening
 
2 T. Schweder et al.techniques are explained. Finally, new approaches for the screening of metabolites frommarine microorganisms are discussed.
Keywords
Functional genomics
·
Proteome
·
Metabolome
·
Natural compounds
·
High-throughput screening
1Introduction
The tremendous biochemical diversity of marine microorganisms and theirbiotechnological potential is becoming more and more recognized, not only by microbiologists but also by the pharmaceutical industry. Several new companies focus on the discovery of more effective drugs based on natu-ral products of marine microorganisms. In recent years, the improvementof screening technologies has yielded a considerable number of potentialnew drug candidates and other metabolites from microorganisms of marineecosystems.The physiological investigation of marine natural products has shown thatmany of these compounds function as signal transducers and thus regulatecomplex processes within marine living societies. It is supposed that thesestructures play an important role in the inhibition of physiological processesof potential competitors. This offers a promising potential for the explorationof new drugs against critical pathogenic microorganisms.Most of the marine compounds that have been successfully screened andstructurally elucidated so far originate from microorganisms, especially bac-teria. Several studies have demonstrated that natural products isolated fromhigher marine organisms like marine invertebrates are very frequently of bacterial origin. However, these bacteria, which are for example in a symbi-otic association with higher organisms, usually cannot be cultivated alone ina pure culture. Their growth depends directly on the activity of their hosts.Furthermore, only a minority of free-living marine microorganisms has beenidentified and can be cultivated so far. The knowledge on such marine mi-croorganisms is very limited compared to those microorganisms that can beeasily cultured under laboratory conditions. The taxonomical identificationof marine microorganisms in general is still in its infancy. The focus on thephysiology and the potential of bioactive substances of non-cultivable marinemicroorganisms is an important challenge at present and for the future.The estimated taxonomical diversity of marine microorganisms in generalindicates the powerful potential of novel bioactive substances produced inaquatic ecosystems. It has been shown that marine bacteria, which are thepredominant microorganisms in the marine ecosystems, produce bioactivesubstances that are different from known compounds from terrestrial bacte-

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