Chap2.doc9/29/2011carpenter's planes, a farmer would simply describe his need and the function of the tool. This would bedescribed verbally to a blacksmith. The blacksmith would serve as both a designer as well as amanufacturer. No formal design was undertaken. He would instead try to duplicate as closely as possible some similar product given his materials and processes, such as forging with a hammer and pressure welding. More complex items created more difficult problems. For example when JamesWatt invented the steam engine (1775), it took some twenty-five years to bring this concept to fruition.Watt described his concept to fellow inventor James Wilkerson. However, no standard manufacturingtechniques were available to create the required parts. The concept was probably first expressed aswords and then as a sketch where a piston fit within a cylindrical housing. Forged or cast componentsdid not fit well enough to function as required. Wilkerson eventually invented and produced a vertical- boring machine that could hold the required tolerances to make pistons and cylinders for the steamengine. These activities were critical events in our industrial development in that the steam engine became one of the sources for industrial power and the boring machine became a model for other machine tool advances.Today, we would never attempt to produce a complex product without first creating anengineering drawing of the product. The drawing allows us to envisage the gross geometry and actionof the product before it ever exists. The designer can make several design iterations before the first product is ever manufactured. The geometry and material specification can also be used to analyze the product's capacities (weight limits, product weight, envelope, etc.) before the product is ever made.Finally, the engineering drawing is the model used to check or qualify the product that gets producedwhen it is inspected to make sure that it meets the specifications of the design.Prior to manufacture, a product’s intended function and specification must be determined. Theseactivities are normally referred to as product engineering or design. The product design process can bedivided into five basic steps: (1) design conceptualization, (2) design synthesis, (3) design analysis, (4)design evaluation, and (5) design representation. Based on the functional requirements of a product, a product engineer conceptualizes a solution (or design). The initial solution is usually rather aggregate,and normally contains the general elements of the product, without a lot of detail. The synthesis stepadds more detail to the initial concept. In this stage, the product engineer lays out geometry anddimensions are assigned to the product. Steps 1 and 2 rely heavily on the creativity of a designer. Thatis the process is more of an art than an exercise in scientific basis exists for these activities.During the first two steps, the designer investigates by the designer. As the design takes onmore definition, a sketch is frequently used to help clarify the idea. When the design task is carried out by a group of people, like for an automobile or and aircraft a common, understandable representationschema must be used in order for all involved to share in the development. The solution is thenanalyzed and evaluated in order to identify viable and, eventually, the best design alternative. Beforethe design is released for manufacture, a design must detail the design, which includes the selection of standard components, the determination of dimensions and tolerances, the determination of specialmanufacturing notes, and final drafting, is performed. The design representation step includes both therough sketch and the design layout detail.In order for a product to be properly manufactured, several activities must be completed. Most products consist of more than one part. For each part to be properly manufactured, a detailed partrepresentation with information pertinent to manufacturing must be received before any productionactivity can begin. In addition to the individual part drawings, the designer must also prepare anassembly drawing of the product (or a subassembly). An assembly drawing shows the relationship of how parts fit together to make an assembly. Assembly drawings normally do not contain dimensionsand tolerances as these specifics are included in the individual part drawings. In this chapter, various procedures used to specify a part design are discussed. This chapter begins with a general discussion onengineering design, followed by a discussion of interpretation of engineering drawings and inspectionrequired to certify that a good product has been manufactured.
An engineering drawing is the output from the product engineering process, but onlyrepresents the partial realization of a designer’s concept. That is, the designer transforms an idea in his2