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Chapter 2 New

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Chap2.doc9/29/2011
in_____________________________________ Chapter 2Engineering Specification and Qualification
2.0
Design Specification and Interpretation
2.4.2.2
Vernier Caliper 
2.1
Product Engineering
2.4.2.3
Micrometer 
2.2
Design Drafting
2.4.2.7
Strain Gages
2.2.1
Multiview Drawing
2.4.2.8
Photoelasticity
2.3
Design Interpretation
2.4.2.9
Stress Paints
2.2.2
Partial Views
2.4.2.10
Hardness Testers
2.3.1
Tolerancing
2.4.3
 Nondestructive Inspection
2.2.3
Dimensioning and Tolerancing
2.4.3.1
X-ray
2.3.1.1
Parametric Tolerancing
2.4.3.2
Ultrasonic Equipment
2.2.3.1
Conventional Tolerancing
2.4.3.3
Fluorescent Penetrants
2.2.4
Geometric Tolerancing
2.4.3.4
Machine Vision
2.3.1.2
Geometric tolerances
2.4.4
Test Equipment
2.3.2
Tolerancing Examples
2.4.5
Surface Finish
2.3.3
Limit and Fit
2.4.5.1
Measurement or Evaluation
2.4
Inspection and Measurement
2.5
Case Study-Inspection with Special PurposeGages
2.4.1
Inspection Errors
2.6
Summary
2.4.2.4
Gage Blocks
2.7
Questions
2.4.2
General Purpose Measurement Equipment
2.8
Problems
2.4.2.5
Optical Flats
2.9
References
2.4.2.1
Scales
2.10
Recommended Reading
2.4.2.6
Air and Electric Comparator  __________________________________________________________ 
More important than the quest for certainty is the quest for clarity. Francois Gautier 
2.0 Design specification and interpretation
Product engineering, as you learned in Chapter 1, is a key activity in the conversion of an ideainto a finished product. Product engineering typically culminates with the creation of an engineeringdrawing, which is used to represent the designer's ideas. The engineering drawing represents severalcharacteristics of the product. For mechanical products, the most notable feature of the engineeringdrawing is the geometry that it represents. The engineering drawing however contains several other important specifications. The material(s) to be used are defined on the drawing along with thedimensions, datums and tolerances in accordance to which the product is to be produced. Theengineering drawing may also contain surface or material preparation instructions, such as painting or tempering. The product geometry and material are most certainly critical aspects of the engineeringdesign. From a manufacturing point of view; the datum specification, tolerance requirements andsurface and material specification may be even more critical to the efficient manufacture of a product.In this Chapter, we examine product engineering more closely with a specific focus on the engineeringdrawing, how a designer creates an engineering drawing, and how tolerance specifications of the designare interpreted so that an inspector can qualify a product.Before our industrial revolution, skilled artisans like blacksmiths, carpenters or scientistsskilled in woodworking or metalworking produced products. For simple items like farm tools and1
 
Chap2.doc9/29/2011carpenter's planes, a farmer would simply describe his need and the function of the tool. This would bedescribed verbally to a blacksmith. The blacksmith would serve as both a designer as well as amanufacturer. No formal design was undertaken. He would instead try to duplicate as closely as possible some similar product given his materials and processes, such as forging with a hammer and pressure welding. More complex items created more difficult problems. For example when JamesWatt invented the steam engine (1775), it took some twenty-five years to bring this concept to fruition.Watt described his concept to fellow inventor James Wilkerson. However, no standard manufacturingtechniques were available to create the required parts. The concept was probably first expressed aswords and then as a sketch where a piston fit within a cylindrical housing. Forged or cast componentsdid not fit well enough to function as required. Wilkerson eventually invented and produced a vertical- boring machine that could hold the required tolerances to make pistons and cylinders for the steamengine. These activities were critical events in our industrial development in that the steam engine became one of the sources for industrial power and the boring machine became a model for other machine tool advances.Today, we would never attempt to produce a complex product without first creating anengineering drawing of the product. The drawing allows us to envisage the gross geometry and actionof the product before it ever exists. The designer can make several design iterations before the first product is ever manufactured. The geometry and material specification can also be used to analyze the product's capacities (weight limits, product weight, envelope, etc.) before the product is ever made.Finally, the engineering drawing is the model used to check or qualify the product that gets producedwhen it is inspected to make sure that it meets the specifications of the design.Prior to manufacture, a product’s intended function and specification must be determined. Theseactivities are normally referred to as product engineering or design. The product design process can bedivided into five basic steps: (1) design conceptualization, (2) design synthesis, (3) design analysis, (4)design evaluation, and (5) design representation. Based on the functional requirements of a product, a product engineer conceptualizes a solution (or design). The initial solution is usually rather aggregate,and normally contains the general elements of the product, without a lot of detail. The synthesis stepadds more detail to the initial concept. In this stage, the product engineer lays out geometry anddimensions are assigned to the product. Steps 1 and 2 rely heavily on the creativity of a designer. Thatis the process is more of an art than an exercise in scientific basis exists for these activities.During the first two steps, the designer investigates by the designer. As the design takes onmore definition, a sketch is frequently used to help clarify the idea. When the design task is carried out by a group of people, like for an automobile or and aircraft a common, understandable representationschema must be used in order for all involved to share in the development. The solution is thenanalyzed and evaluated in order to identify viable and, eventually, the best design alternative. Beforethe design is released for manufacture, a design must detail the design, which includes the selection of standard components, the determination of dimensions and tolerances, the determination of specialmanufacturing notes, and final drafting, is performed. The design representation step includes both therough sketch and the design layout detail.In order for a product to be properly manufactured, several activities must be completed. Most products consist of more than one part. For each part to be properly manufactured, a detailed partrepresentation with information pertinent to manufacturing must be received before any productionactivity can begin. In addition to the individual part drawings, the designer must also prepare anassembly drawing of the product (or a subassembly). An assembly drawing shows the relationship of how parts fit together to make an assembly. Assembly drawings normally do not contain dimensionsand tolerances as these specifics are included in the individual part drawings. In this chapter, various procedures used to specify a part design are discussed. This chapter begins with a general discussion onengineering design, followed by a discussion of interpretation of engineering drawings and inspectionrequired to certify that a good product has been manufactured.
2.1PRODUCT ENGINEERING
An engineering drawing is the output from the product engineering process, but onlyrepresents the partial realization of a designer’s concept. That is, the designer transforms an idea in his2
 
Chap2.doc9/29/2011head to one on an engineering drawing since the designer cannot normally directly transform a conceptinto a physical item. The designer conveys an idea to other key personnel via a engineering drawing,for instance purchasing agents, process engineers and production managers. A process engineer willthen determine how to produce the design (Figure 2.1). For example, let us suppose that a productengineer is charged with the task of designing a wagon that will be used as a toy. The product engineer has many decisions to make. In this case a 3 or 4 wheel wagon will function reasonably well. The 4wheel wagon will produce a more stable toy, but will also increase the cost of the product. The productengineer must also select the suspension and steering apparatus for the wagon. Finally, the designer will need to specify what type of frame will be used (unibody or a separate frame structure). Each of these decisions affect not only the performance of the product, but they also affect:1)The number of components that make up the product,2)The raw material (and initial form) that goes into the product,3)The manufacturing and assembly method used to produce the product,4)The maintainability of the product, and5)The cost of the product.The intent of this book is not to provide the student with a treatise on how to design andevaluate the functionality of product, but rather to relate how design decisions affect the choice of rawmaterials, manufacturing methods and production management. As a result, we will not dwell uponhow a product engineer develops a concept, but rather what the affects of the design decisions will beon the process and production engineer. Many of these decisions are somewhat obvious. For instancein the case of a 3 versus 4 wheel wagon, 25% of the assembly time and wheel purchase cost could besaved by choosing the 3 wheel design. There are many far more subtle affects that the product engineer imposes on the process and production engineer. In order to illustrate some of these affects, we willfirst look at how a product is typically represented.A pictorial image of the product is necessary to relate information to others. Traditionally,engineers have used multiview orthographic drawings as the standard tool to represent a design.Orthographic drawings allow the designer to convey design information to others reading the drawings.The viewer can use the drawing to reconstruct and interpret the object that the designer has portrayed inthe engineering design. To interpret the information in the drawing, the reader must be able totransform the object from one medium to another who are well, specifically from a two-dimensionalthree-view drawing to a three-dimensional picture. In addition, the viewer must be able to understandthe rules used to construct the drawing. We review these rules in Section 2.2.2.There are several methods used to represent an engineering drawing. The conventionalmethod is drafting on paper with pen or pencil. Manual drafting has been the standard for developingand representing engineering product. Manual drafting however is tedious and requires a tremendousamount of patience and time. Computer-aided drafting or Computer-aided design (CAD) systemsimprove drafting efficiency because they eliminate tedious drawing and redrawing. CAD systems store partially completed or completed drawings in a computer and the drafter can retrieve them whenneeded. CAD has become to designers what word processing has become to writers.3

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