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odev birlestirme 2

odev birlestirme 2

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Published by: api-3729433 on Oct 15, 2008
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03/18/2014

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1.Anadolu
1.1.Anadolu Kavram\u0131

Anadolu, Asya ve Avrupa k\u0131talar\u0131n\u0131n bulu\u015ftu\u011fu bir noktada ve do\u011fal bir ge\u00e7i\u015f olu\u015fturdu\u011fu i\u00e7in her iki k\u0131tadan ve hatta Afrika'dan gelen say\u0131s\u0131z g\u00f6\u00e7 dalgalar\u0131na sahne olmu\u015ftur. Anadolu'nun tarihi bir bak\u0131ma g\u00f6\u00e7ebe kabilelerle koloni topluluklar\u0131n\u0131n ak\u0131nlar\u0131n\u0131n, devletlerinin y\u00fckseli\u015f ve \u00e7\u00f6k\u00fc\u015flerinin tarihi olmu\u015ftur.

(De\u011firmencio\u011flu ve Ahipa\u015fao\u011flu, 2003:3)

K\u00fc\u00e7\u00fck Asya olarak an\u0131lan bu topraklara Hitit d\u00f6neminden beri '' Anatolia'' denmektedir. G\u00fcne\u015fin do\u011fdu\u011fu yer yani do\u011fu anlam\u0131ndad\u0131r. T\u00fcrkler Anatolia'n\u0131n kendi dillerine en yakin s\u00f6ylevi olarak bu topraklara '' Anadolu'' demi\u015flerdir. Bu bir anlamda o g\u00fcnlerdeki dinsel ve toplumsal yap\u0131s\u0131 ile de uyum sa\u011flam\u0131\u015ft\u0131r. T\u00fcrk\u00e7ede Anadolu tamlamas\u0131 ile '' Analar\u0131n do\u011fdu\u011fu yer '' anla\u015f\u0131labilir. Tun\u00e7 \u00e7a\u011flar\u0131nda Mezopotamyal\u0131lar\u0131n Anadolu'ya '' Bin Tanr\u0131 \u00dclkesi '' dedikleri an\u0131msand\u0131\u011f\u0131nda, bu s\u00f6zc\u00fck bir ba\u015fka a\u00e7\u0131dan da anlam kazanmaktad\u0131r.

(De\u011f\u0131rmenc\u0131o\u011flu ve Ahipa\u015fao\u011flu, 2003:3)

Anadolu tarihi i\u00e7in''Bir Medeniyetler Mozai\u011fidir '' diyebiliriz. \u00c7e\u015fitlili\u011fi ile sanat ve k\u00fclt\u00fcr alan\u0131nda bat\u0131 medeniyetlerine kaynak olmu\u015ftur. Anadolu topraklar\u0131 \u00fczerinde ya\u015fam\u0131\u015f, ya\u015fayan ve ya\u015fayacak olan her Anadolulu t\u0131pk\u0131 onun gibi c\u00f6merttir, \u015fefkatlidir, zengindir, cesurdur ve ba\u011f\u0131\u015flay\u0131c\u0131d\u0131r.

(Olgunlu,2004:2)
Anadolu say\u0131s\u0131z Uygarl\u0131\u011f\u0131n\u0131n be\u015fi\u011fidir. Topra\u011f\u0131n alt\u0131ndan
\u00e7\u0131kan buluntular 10 bin y\u0131l \u00f6ncesine giden uygarl\u0131k \u00fcr\u00fcnlerini de1
bunu g\u00f6steriyor. Bu de\u011fi\u015fik uygarl\u0131klar\u0131n birikimine Anadolu
uygarl\u0131\u011f\u0131 diyoruz.
(Eyubo\u011flu,1987:293)
2.Ana Tanr\u0131\u00e7a
2.1. Ana Tanr\u0131\u00e7a'n\u0131n Do\u011fu\u015fu

G\u00fcn\u00fcm\u00fczden yakla\u015f\u0131k 10bin y\u0131l \u00f6ncesine uzanan bir d\u00f6nemde \u2018Anaerkil\u2019 karakterli bir din egemen olmu\u015ftu Anadolu\u2019da. Bu d\u00f6nem \u2018Neolitik\u2019 denen yeni ta\u015f \u00e7a\u011f\u0131n\u0131 simgeliyor. Yayg\u0131n ad\u0131yla \u2018cilal\u0131 ta\u015f devri\u2019 olarak bilinir. D\u00f6nemin bilinen en eski merkezleriyse g\u00fcn\u00fcm\u00fcz Konya ilindeki \u00c7atalh\u00f6y\u00fck ile Burdur ilinde ki Hac\u0131lar. \u00d6zellikle de \u00c7atalh\u00f6y\u00fck

bu d\u00f6nemde yery\u00fcz\u00fcn\u00fcn en parlak k\u00fclt\u00fcr merkezidir ve
Anadolu d\u00fcnyada \u00f6nder konumdad\u0131r.
(Derman,1998; 16)
Anadolu
matriyalkal(kad\u0131nlar\u0131n
erkeklere

egemen oldu\u011fu)bir sistem ile ifade edilirken, b\u00fcy\u00fck Ana Tanr\u0131\u00e7a Kybele\u2019ye tap\u0131l\u0131rd\u0131. Kybele, bir Ay tanr\u0131\u00e7as\u0131yd\u0131. K\u0131zl\u0131\u011f\u0131, kad\u0131nl\u0131\u011f\u0131 ve anal\u0131\u011f\u0131 temsil etti\u011fi i\u00e7in do\u011fan Ay, Ay\u2019\u0131n ond\u00f6rd\u00fc ve azalan

Ay olarak g\u00f6sterilirdi. Yani \u00fc\u00e7lek bir tanr\u0131\u00e7ayd\u0131.
(Karaa\u011fa\u00e7l\u0131, 1993: 43)

Anaerkil toplumlarda Ulu Tanr\u0131\u00e7a ya da Ana tanr\u0131\u00e7a, Do\u011fa Ana'ya hayat veren en \u00fcst\u00fcn olan tanr\u0131d\u0131r. O t\u00fcm insan hayat\u0131n\u0131n ve t\u00fcm yiyeceklerin kayna\u011f\u0131d\u0131r. S\u00fcrekli olabilmek i\u00e7in, toplumlar \u00e7ocuk yapmak ve yiyecek \u00fcretmek zorundad\u0131r. Ulu Tanr\u0131\u00e7a'n\u0131n nimetlerine ne denli ba\u011fl\u0131 olduklar\u0131n\u0131 bilirlerdi ve bu nimetlere kavu\u015fabilmek i\u00e7in d\u00fczenli olarak ana ibadet ederlerdi. (Rossenberg,1998:19)

2

\u0130lk \u00e7a\u011f insanlar\u0131 yakla\u015f\u0131k 25.000 y\u0131l s\u00fcresince Ana Tanr\u0131\u00e7a'ya tapm\u0131\u015flard\u0131r. Ancak g\u00fcn\u00fcm\u00fczden 6.000 y\u0131l \u00f6nce erkek tanr\u0131lar da yer yer tarih sahnesine \u00e7\u0131kmaya ba\u015flam\u0131\u015flard\u0131r. Zaman i\u00e7erisinde ba\u015fka co\u011frafyalarda erkek tanr\u0131lar inanc\u0131 etkili olmu\u015f ve toplumlarda Ana tanr\u0131\u00e7a k\u00fclt\u00fcr\u00fcn\u00fc gerilemi\u015f ve Ataerkil toplum d\u00fczenine ge\u00e7ilmi\u015f, bu \u00f6zellikle Yunanistan'da kendini g\u00f6stermi\u015ftir.

(\u00dcnal,2003:18)

D\u00fcnya \u00fczerinde kad\u0131n\u0131n \u00fcst\u00fcnl\u00fc\u011f\u00fcn\u00fc ve \u00f6nceli\u011fini vurgulayan ilk Ana Tanr\u0131\u00e7a kavram\u0131 Anadolu'da geli\u015fmi\u015ftir. Yunanistan\u2019a, dolay\u0131s\u0131 ile Avrupa'ya da yay\u0131lm\u0131\u015ft\u0131r. Tap\u0131nman\u0131n \u00f6z\u00fc onunla birle\u015febilmek olu\u015fturmu\u015ftur.

(De\u011f\u0131rmenc\u0131o\u011flu ve Ahipa\u015fao\u011flu,1999:2)

Anadolu'da Ana Tanr\u0131\u00e7a tap\u0131s\u0131 ise M.S. 5. yy\u2019a kadar etkisini s\u00fcrd\u00fcrm\u00fc\u015ft\u00fcr. Di\u011fer bir ifade ile Anadolu'da bin y\u0131llar i\u00e7inde geli\u015fen topluluklar, \u015fehir devletleri ve daha sonra ilk \u00e7a\u011f\u0131n s\u00fcper g\u00fcc\u00fc olan Hititler d\u00f6nemi de d\u00e2hil olmak \u00fczere, Ana Tanr\u0131\u00e7a etkinli\u011fini devam ettirmi\u015ftir. Buna paralel olarak Anaerkil sosyal d\u00fczen ve bu ko\u015fullar i\u00e7inde kad\u0131n\u0131n \u00fcst\u00fcn sosyal durumu Anadolu'da bin y\u0131llar s\u00fcr\u00fcp gitmi\u015ftir.

(\u00dcnal,2003:18)
2.2. \u00c7a\u011flar Boyunca Ana Tanr\u0131\u00e7a

S\u00fcmerlerden de \u00f6nceki bir k\u00fclt\u00fcr \u00e7a\u011f\u0131n\u0131 yans\u0131tan bu tarihler Ana Tanr\u0131\u00e7a'n\u0131n Anadolu'nun yerlisi oldu\u011funu a\u00e7\u0131\u011fa vurmaktad\u0131r. D\u00fc\u015f\u00fcnd\u00fcr\u00fcc\u00fc olan da \u00c7atalh\u00f6y\u00fck'te bulunan \u00e7izgi motiflerine bug\u00fcn halen Anadolu'nun geleneksel halk sanat\u0131 olan kilimlerde rastlan\u0131lmas\u0131d\u0131r. Yontular\u0131n heykel, fig\u00fcr\u00fcn ve3

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