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Engineering Steam Plant Operation

Engineering Steam Plant Operation

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Published by: sherabe on Sep 30, 2011
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Steam and Its Importance
In today’s modern world, all societies are involved to variousdegrees with technological breakthroughs that are attempting tomake our lives more productive and more comfortable. These tech-nologies include sophisticated electronic devices, the most promi-nent of which are computer systems. Many of the systems in ourmodern world depend on a reliable and relatively inexpensive energysource—
. In fact, inexpensive and reliable electricity iscritical to the sustained economic growth and security of the UnitedStates and of the rest of the world.The United States depends on reliable, low-cost, and abundantenergy. Energy drives the economy, heats homes, and pumps water.The efficient use and production of electricity and effective conserva-tion measures are paramount in ensuring low-cost energy. As anexample, the United States uses about 10 percent more energy todaythan it did in 1973, yet there are more than 20 million additionalhomes and 50 million more vehicles, and the gross national product(GNP) is 50 percent higher.
With the availability of electricity providing most of the industrial-ized world a very high degree of comfort, the source of this electricityand the means for its production are often forgotten. It is the powerplant that provides this critical energy source, and in the UnitedStates approximately 90 percent of the electricity is produced frompower plants that use steam as an energy source, with the remaining10 percent of the electricity produced primarily by hydroelectricpower plants. In other parts of the world, similar proportions arecommon for their electric production.
Position Statement on Energy by the National Society of Professional Engineers.
Ch01_Lammers_1418466 10/8/04 11:33 AM Page 1
Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.Source: Steam Plant Operation
2Chapter One
The power plant is a facility that transforms various types of energyinto electricity or heat for some useful purpose. The energy input tothe power plant can vary significantly, and the plant design to accom-modate this energy is drastically different for each energy source. Theforms of this input energy can be as follows:1.The
 potential energy
of an elevated body of water, which, whenused, becomes a hydroelectric power plant.2.The
chemical energy
that is released from the hydrocarbons con-tained in fossil fuels such as coal, oil, or natural gas, whichbecomes a fossil fuel fired power plant.3.The
solar energy
from the sun, which becomes a solar power plant.4.The
 fission or fusion energy
that separates or attracts atomic parti-cles, which becomes a nuclear power plant.With any of these input sources, the power plant’s output can takevarious forms:1.Heat for a process or for heating2.Electricity that is subsequently converted into other forms of energy3.Energy for transportation such as for shipsIn these power plants, the conversion of water to steam is the pre-dominant technology, and this book will describe this process and thevarious systems and equipment that are used commonly in today’soperating steam power plants.Each power plant has many interacting systems, and in a steampower plant these include fuel and ash handling, handling of combus-tion air and the products of combustion, feedwater and condensate,steam, environmental control systems, and the control systems thatare necessary for a safe, reliable, and efficiently run power plant. Theeighth edition of 
 Steam-Plant Operation
continues to blend descrip-tions and illustrations of both new and older equipment, since bothare in operation in today’s power plants.
1.1The Use of Steam
Steam is a critical resource in today’s industrial world. It is essentialfor the production of paper and other wood products, for the preparationand serving of foods, for the cooling and heating of large buildings, fordriving equipment such as pumps and compressors, and for poweringships. However, its most important priority remains as the primarysource of power for the production of electricity.
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com)Copyright © 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.Steam and Its Importance