St. Louis Review Center
"A state of well-being where a person can realize his or her own abilities to cope with the normalstresses of life and work productively." (
Balance in person’s internal life and adaptation to reality.
State of well-being in which a person is able to realize his potentials.Criteria for Mental Health:
recognize one’s thoughts feelings, asset potentials and weakness.
experience genuine feelings as anger, happiness, resentment
leads to self-acceptance, self-understanding in order to understand others
: ability to function independently and function with others
Awareness of stimuli, reality orientation.
Orientation to: Time, Place, Person
: Ability to harmonize psychic forces (id, ego, super ego).
Ability to adopt to life changes, happy to work with others
Satisfaction in every endeavor
Mastery of one’s environment:
Awareness of the changes around him
a science that deals with: Promotive, Preventive, Curative, Rehabilitative aspects of care.
A medically diagnosable illness which results in significant impairment of one's cognitive, affective or relational abilities and is equivalent to mental illness.Criteria for Mental Disorder:
one’s characteristics, abilities and accomplishments
one’s place in the world
coping or adaptation to the events in one’s life
A state in which an individual shows deficit in functioning and is unable to maintain personalrelationship.
State of imbalance characterized by a disturbance in a person’s thoughts, feelings and behavior
Factors that increase the risk are: Crises, Abuses, Poverty
Historical View of Mental Illness
In the past, mental illness has been viewed as:
Influence of ancestral spirits
Result of violating taboo or neglecting cultural, ritual, and spiritual condemnation
Period of Enlightenment (1745-1886)
Lunatics were restrained in iron menacles
Mentally ill were exhibited as diversion and entertainment for the public
Establishment of asylums
Opening of state hospitals for mentally ill.
Period of Scientific Study
Psychoanalysis by Sigmund Freud
Psychotropic Drugs (1950)
Use of chlorpromazine and imipramine
Mental illness is caused by chemical imbalance in the brain.
The Decade of the Brain (1990)
Focused on the connections between mental illness and biological malfunction in the brainand the neuroendocrine-immune system.
Biological views holds that biological defects are responsible for certain serious mental illness.
Diagnosis of Mental Illness
Use of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Illness (DSM-IV)
Provides diagnostic criteria for each mental disorder and a system of 5 axes to give a comprehensiveview of the client’s mental illness.
: The clinical disorder that is the focus of treatment
: Personality disorders and mental retardation
: Medical conditions
: Psychosocial and environmental problems
: Global assessment of functioning (GAF)
An interpersonal process
Concerned with all the aspects of care
Both a Science and an Art
Science – uses different theoriesPsychiatric Nursing: Lecture Aid Page 1