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Otto Cycle

Otto Cycle

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efficiency and mep of an otto cycle...
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12/17/2012

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4.4 Air Standard Otto Cycle:
The air-standard-Otto cycle is the idealized cycle for the spark-ignition internalcombustion engines. This cycle is shown above on p-v and T-s diagrams. The Ottocycle 1-2-3-4 consists of following four process:Process 1-2: Reversible adiabatic compression of air.Process 2-3: Heat addition at constant volume.Process 3-4: Reversible adiabatic expansion of air.Process 4-1: Heat rejection at constant volume.
4321
Volume

4321
Entropy

Fig.4.4. Otto cycle on p-v and T-s diagrams
Air Standard Efficiency:
th
η

Since processes 1-2 and 3-4 are adiabatic processes, the heat transfer during the cycletakes place only during processes 2-3 and 4-1 respectively. Therefore, thermalefficiency can be written as,
th
η

Consider ‘m’ kg of working fluid,
( )
( )
V32V41
Heat added = mCT - THeat Rejected = mCT - T

( )
( )
( )
V32V4141thV3232
mCT - T - mCT - TT - T= = 1 -mCT - TT - T
η

For the reversible adiabatic processes 3-4 and 1-2, we can write,
- 1 - 134123421
vTTV= and =TvTV
γ γ

2341
v= v and v = v

14141232321
TTT - TV= =TTT - TV
γ−
=

1th2
T1 -T
η =
-121
V1-V
γ
=

The ratio

12
VV
is called as compression ratio, r.

- 1th
1= 1 -
γ
η

From the above equation, it can be observed that the efficiency of the Otto cycle ismainly the function of compression ratio for the given ratio of C
p
and C
v
. If we plot thevariations of the thermal efficiency with increase in compression ratio for differentgases, the curves are obtained as shown in Fig.4.4.1. Beyond certain values ofcompression ratios, the increase in the thermal efficiency is very small, because thecurve tends to be asymptotic. However, practically the compression ratio of petrolengines is restricted to maximum of 9 or 10 due to the phenomenon of knocking at highcompression ratios.