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BGTH_inchuan

BGTH_inchuan

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Published by api-3710223
Tài liệu môn Lý thuyết tín hiệu
Tài liệu môn Lý thuyết tín hiệu

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Published by: api-3710223 on Oct 15, 2008
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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05/09/2014

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1
Ch\u01b0\u01a1ng1: T\u00edn hi\u1ec7u \u0111i\u1ec1u bi\u1ebfn
Ti\u1ebft 1: M\u1edf \u0111\u1ea7u
1. X\u00e9t 2kh\u00e1i ni\u1ec7m c\u01a1 b\u1ea3n c\u1ee7a l\u00fd thuy\u1ebft truy\u1ec1n tin:
\ue020Tin: kh\u00e1i ni\u1ec7m ban \u0111\u1ea7u kh\u00f4ng \u0111\u1ecbnh ngh\u0129a, g\u1ee3i ra 1 s\u1ed1 \u00fd th\u1ed1ng nh\u1ea5t v\u1edbi
nhau, h\u00ecnh dung th\u1ebf n\u00e0o l\u00e0 tin? Tin l\u00e0 nh\u1eefng \u0111i\u1ec1u, s\u1ef1 ki\u1ec7n, \u00fd, c\u00e2u
chuy\u1ec7n\u2026 m\u00e0 con ng\u01b0\u1eddi mu\u1ed1n truy\u1ec1n \u0111\u1ea1t cho nhau ho\u1eb7c thu nh\u1eadn
\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c t\u1eeb quan s\u00e1t kh\u00e1ch quan.
\ue020T\u00edn hi\u1ec7u: theo \u0111\u1ecbnh ngh\u0129a l\u00e0 bi\u1ec3u hi\u1ec7n v\u1eadt l\u00fd c\u1ee7a tin.
V\u00ed d\u1ee5:
\ue020Th\u00f4ngtintho\u1ea1i bao g\u1ed3m:
oTin: n\u1ed9i dung cu\u1ed9c n\u00f3i chuy\u1ec7n.
oT\u00edn hi\u1ec7u: ti\u1ebfng n\u00f3i. V\u1eadt l\u00fd: s\u00f3ng \u00e2m thanh.
\ue020Th\u00f4ngtin radio:
oTin: n\u1ed9i dungcu\u1ed9c truy\u1ec1n tin.
oT\u00edn hi\u1ec7u: s\u00f3ng \u0111i\u1ec7n t\u1eeb. (Tr\u01b0\u1eddng \u0111i\u1ec7n t\u1eeb b\u1ee9c x\u1ea1 - radiation)
2.\u0110\u1eb7c \u0111i\u1ec3m c\u1ee7a t\u00edn hi\u1ec7u radio:
C\u00f3 t\u1ea7n s\u1ed1 r\u1ea5t cao v\u00ec b\u1ed9 ph\u1eadn b\u1ee9c x\u1ea1 s\u00f3ng (anten ph\u00e1t), mu\u1ed1n b\u1ee9c x\u1ea1
t\u1ed1t ph\u1ea3i c\u00f3 k\u00edch th\u01b0\u1edbc h\u00ecnhh\u1ecdc x\u1ea5p x\u1ec9 b\u01b0\u1edbc s\u00f3ng c\u1ee7a dao \u0111\u1ed9ng (4
\ue006
\ue022).
B\u01b0\u1edbc s\u00f3ng c\u00e0ng b\u00e9 th\u00ec k\u00edch th\u01b0\u1edbc anten c\u00e0ng nh\u1ecf khi \u0111\u00f3 t\u00ednh kh\u1ea3 thi
v\u1eadt l\u00fd c\u1ee7a anten c\u00e0ngcao. B\u01b0\u1edbc s\u00f3ng c\u00e0ngng\u1eafn t\u1ea7n s\u1ed1 c\u00e0ng cao.
V\u00ed d\u1ee5: 1. cho f = 50 Hz.
Ta c\u00f3:\u03bb=.
cT=cf =
8
6
3.106.10 ( )
5
0
m
\ue007
=6000 (km)
4
\ue003
=6000
4=1500 (km) (K\u00edchth\u01b0\u1edbc c\u1ee7a anten)
2
2. Cho f =1Mhz =
6
10Hz
8
6
3.10
10
cf
\ue006\ue007 \ue007
=300 (m)
4
\ue003
=300
4
=75 (m)
Nh\u01b0ng t\u00edn hi\u1ec7u ban \u0111\u1ea7u (t\u1eeb kh\u00f4ng \u0111i\u1ec7n \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c chuy\u1ec3n th\u00e0nh\u0111i\u1ec7n) t\u1ea7n
s\u1ed1 kh\u00f4ng \u0111\u1ee7 cao \u0111\u1ec3 tr\u1ef1c ti\u1ebfp b\u1ee9c x\u1ea1. Mu\u1ed1n b\u1ee9c x\u1ea1 \u0111i xa, c\u1ea7n c\u00f3 bi\u1ec7n ph\u00e1p
\u0111\u01b0a l\u00ean mi\u1ec1n t\u1ea7n s\u1ed1 cao (qu\u00e1 tr\u00ecnh \u0111\u00f3g\u1ecdi l\u00e0 qu\u00e1 tr\u00ecnh \u0111i\u1ec1u bi\u1ebfn).
Thamgia th\u00e0nh ph\u00e2n\u0111i\u1ec1u khi\u1ec3n c\u00f32 th\u00e0nh ph\u1ea7n:
\ue020T\u00edn hi\u1ec7u ban \u0111\u1ea7u x(t): h\u00e0m tin. H\u00e0m tin x(t) l\u00e0 kh\u00e1ch quan y\u00eau c\u1ea7u,
b\u1ea5t k\u00ec.
\ue020T\u1ea3i tin: dao \u0111\u1ed9ng c\u00f3 t\u1ea7n s\u1ed1 cao: u(t). T\u1ea3i tin u(t): do k\u0129 thu\u1eadt ch\u1ee7 \u0111\u1ed9ng.
Ph\u00e2nlo\u1ea1i \u0111i\u1ec1u bi\u1ebfn:
Do t\u1ea3i tin l\u1ef1a ch\u1ecdn m\u00e0 c\u00f3 c\u00e1c lo\u1ea1i \u0111i\u1ec1u bi\u1ebfn kh\u00e1c nhau. X\u00e9t 3 lo\u1ea1i\u0111i\u1ec1u
bi\u1ebfn:
\ue020Lo\u1ea1i 1: t\u00edn hi\u1ec7u \u0111i\u1ec1u bi\u1ebfn cao t\u1ea7n (\u0110BCT): t\u1ea3i tin u(t) \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c ch\u1ecdn nh\u01b0
sau: dao\u0111\u1ed9ng \u0111i\u1ec1u h\u00f2a c\u00f3t\u1ea7n s\u1ed1 cao.
\ue020Lo\u1ea1i 2: T\u00edn hi\u1ec7u \u0111i\u1ec1u bi\u1ebfn xung: l\u00e0 1 d\u00e3yxung (t\u00edn hi\u1ec7u \u0111\u1ed9t bi\u1ebfn) tu\u1ea7n
ho\u00e0n c\u00f3t\u1ea7n s\u1ed1 cao.
\ue020Lo\u1ea1i 3: T\u00edn hi\u1ec7u \u0111i\u1ec1u bi\u1ebfn s\u1ed1: c\u00e1c h\u00e0m tin x(t) c\u00f3 d\u1ea1ng s\u1ed1 (0,1), b\u1ee9c
x\u1ea1.
Ti\u1ebft 2: T\u1ed5ng quan v\u1ec1 t\u00edn hi\u1ec7u v\u00e0\u0111i\u1ec1u bi\u1ebfn cao t\u1ea7n
T\u1ea3i tin l\u00e0 dao\u0111\u1ed9ng \u0111i\u1ec1u h\u00f2a, t\u1ea7n s\u1ed1 cao:
0
0
0
( )
.os( .
)
ut Uc
t
\ue00b
\ue005
\ue005
\ue003
C\u00f3 3th\u00f4ngs\u1ed1 \u0111\u1eb7c tr\u01b0ng:
0
U: Bi\u00ean\u0111\u1ed9
0
( )
u t
U
\ue017
3
0
\ue00b: T\u1ea7n s\u1ed1 g\u00f3crads
0
f
2
\ue00b\ue007
\ue007
Ch\u00fa\u00fd: - Ph\u00e2nbi\u1ec7t0
\ue00bv\u00e0 f0 d\u1ef1a v\u00e0o\u0111\u01a1nv\u1ecb v\u00e0 k\u00ed hi\u1ec7u.
- Khi chuy\u1ec3n \u0111\u1ed5i t\u1eeb
0
\ue00bsang f0 ch\u00fa\u00fd h\u1ec7 s\u1ed1: 2\u03c0
Bi\u1ec3u th\u1ee9c t\u1ea3i tin:
0
0
0
( )
.cos( .
)
ut U
t
\ue00b
\ue005
\ue007
\ue003
(1)
Trong\u0111\u00f3:
0
\ue002
: g\u00f3c pha ban\u0111\u1ea7u
G\u00f3c pha:
0
0
( )
.
t
t
\ue008
\ue00b
\ue005
\ue005
\ue003
Khi t =0 th\u00ec
0
(0)
\ue008
\ue005
\ue007
(kh\u00f4ngt\u1ed5ng qu\u00e1t)
Ch\u00ednh x\u00e1c l\u00e0 d\u1ecbch pha so v\u1edbi
0
os .
c
t
\ue00b; khi\ue00f0 >0: s\u1edbm pha
Khi\ue00f0 <0: tr\u1ec5 pha
Khi
0
0 0
( , , )
U
\ue00b
\ue005l\u00e0 c\u00e1c h\u1eb1ng s\u1ed1 kh\u00f4ng \u0111\u1ed5i: \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c g\u1ecdi l\u00e0 dao\u0111\u1ed9ng thu\u1ea7n t\u00fay
\u0111i\u1ec1u h\u00f2a (c\u00f9ngdao \u0111\u1ed9ng).
Th\u1ef1c hi\u1ec7n \u0111i\u1ec1u bi\u1ebfn: d\u00f9ng h\u00e0m tin x(t)\u0111i\u1ec1u khi\u1ec3n 1 trong 3 th\u00f4ng s\u1ed1
0
0 0
( , , )
U
\ue00b
\ue005ta c\u00f3 3t\u00edn hi\u1ec7u \u0111i\u1ec1u bi\u1ebfn cao t\u1ea7n.
1. T\u00edn hi\u1ec7u \u0111i\u1ec1u bi\u00ean(AM- Amplitude Modulation)
H\u00e0mtinx(t)\u0111i\u1ec1u khi\u1ec3n bi\u00ean\u0111\u1ed9 u(t):
0
( )
. ()
m
ut u
ux t
\ue005
\ue003\ue009
T\u1eeb (1) ta c\u00f3:
\ue000
\ue001\ue000
\ue001
0
0
0
( )
. ( ) . os .
db
u t
U
uxt c
t
\ue00b
\ue005
\ue005
\ue003\ue009
\ue003
(2)
2.T\u00edn hi\u1ec7u \u0111i\u1ec1u t\u1ea7n (FM- Frequency Modulation)
0
( )
. ()
t
x t
\ue00b
\ue00b
\ue00b
\ue005
\ue003\ue009
Bi\u1ec3u th\u1ee9c t\u00edn hi\u1ec7u \u0111i\u1ec1u t\u1ea7n:

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