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4.1In nature, there is a struggle for existence
4.2Natural selection operates if some conditions are met
4.3Natural selection explains both evolution and adaptation
4.4Natural selection can be directional, stabilizing, or disruptive
4.5Variation in natural populations is widespread
4.6Organisms in a population vary in reproductive success
4.7New variation is generated by mutation and recombination
5.1Population genetics is concerned with genotype and gene frequencies
5.2An elementary population genetic model has four main steps
5.6The simplest model of selection is for one favored allele at one locus
5.7The model of selection can be applied to the peppered moth
5.7.1Industrial melanism in moths evolved by natural selection
5.8Pesticide resistance in insects is an example of natural selection
5.12Heterozygous advantage
5.13The fitness of a genotype may depend on its frequency
5.14Subdivided populations require special population genetic principles
5.14.2Migration acts to unify gene frequencies between populations
6.3One gene can be substituted for another by random drift
6.4Hardy–Weinberg “equilibrium” assumes the absence of genetic drift
6.5Neutral drift over time produces a march to homozygosity
6.7Population size and effective population size
7.4The molecular clock shows a generation time effect
7.5The nearly neutral theory
7.5.1The “purely” neutral theory faces several empirical problems
7.6Evolutionary rate and functional constraint
7.7Conclusion and comment: the neutralist paradigm shift
8.2Genotypes at different loci in Papilio memnon are coadapted
8.4Two-locus genetics is concerned with haplotype frequencies
8.5Frequencies of haplotypes may or may not be in linkage equilibrium
8.6Human HLA genes are a multilocus gene system
8.7Linkage disequilibrium can exist for several reasons
8.8Two-locus models of natural selection can be built
8.9Hitch-hiking occurs in two-locus selection models
8.10Selective sweeps can provide evidence of selection in DNA sequences
8.12Wright invented the influential concept of an adaptive topography
8.13The shifting balance theory of evolution
9Quantitative Genetics
9.3Variation is first divided into genetic and environmental effects
9.4Variance of a character is divided into genetic and environmental effects
9.6Heritability is the proportion of phenotypic variance that is additive
9.7A character’s heritability determines its response to artificial selection
9.10Stabilizing selection reduces the genetic variability of a character
10Adaptive Explanation
10.1Natural selection is the only known explanation for adaptation
10.2Pluralism is appropriate in the study of evolution, not of adaptation
10.3Natural selection can in principle explain all known adaptations
10.4.3A new adaptation may evolve by combining unrelated parts
10.5Genetics of adaptation
10.5.3The genetics of adaptation is being studied experimentally
10.5.4Conclusion: the genetics of adaptation
10.6Three main methods are used to study adaptation
10.7Adaptations in nature are not perfect
10.7.1Adaptations may be imperfect because of time lags
10.7.2Genetic constraints may cause imperfect adaptation
10.7.3Developmental constraints may cause adaptive imperfection
10.7.4Historic constraints may cause adaptive imperfection
10.7.6Conclusion: constraints on adaptation
10.8How can we recognize adaptations?
11The Units of Selection
11.1What entities benefit from the adaptations produced by selection?
12.1.1Sex has a 50% cost
12.1.2Sex is unlikely to be explained by genetic constraint
12.1.3Sex can accelerate the rate of evolution
12.1.4Is sex maintained by group selection?
12.2.2The mutational theory predicts U>1
12.3Conclusion: it is uncertain how sex is adaptive
12.4.1Sexual characters are often apparently deleterious
12.4.3Females may choose to pair with particular males
12.5The sex ratio is a well understood adaptation
12.5.1Natural selection usually favors a 50:50 sex ratio
12.6Different adaptations are understood in different levels of detail
13.1In practice species are recognized and defined by phenetic characters
13.2Several closely related species concepts exist
13.2.1The biological species concept
13.2.2The ecological species concept
13.2.3The phenetic species concept
13.3Isolating barriers
13.3.1Isolating barriers prevent interbreeding between species
13.4.2Geographic variation may also be caused by genetic drift
13.4.3Geographic variation may take the form of a cline
13.8Taxonomic concepts may be nominalist or realist
13.8.1The species category
13.8.2Categories below the species level
13.8.3Categories above the species level
14.3.4Speciation as a by-product of divergence is well documented
14.4The Dobzhansky–Muller theory of postzygotic isolation
14.4.6Postzygotic isolation usually follows Haldane’s rule
14.5An interim conclusion: two solid generalizations about speciation
14.6.1Reproductive isolation may be reinforced by natural selection
14.6.2Preconditions for reinforcement may be short lived
14.7Some plant species have originated by hybridization
14.9Parapatric speciation
14.10Sympatric speciation
14.10.1Sympatric speciation is theoretically possible
14.10.2Phytophagous insects may split sympatrically by host shifts
15.1Phylogenies express the ancestral relations between species
15.6The polarity of character states can be inferred by several techniques
15.6.1Outgroup comparison
15.6.2The fossil record
15.6.3Other methods
15.10Molecular phylogenetics in action
15.11Several problems have been encountered in molecular phylogenetics
15.11.1Molecular sequences can be difficult to align
15.11.4Different lineages may evolve at different rates
15.11.5Paralogous genes may be confused with orthologous genes
15.11.6Conclusion: problems in molecular phylogenetics
15.12Paralogous genes can be used to root unrooted trees
16Classification and Evolution
16.1Biologists classify species into a hierarchy of groups
16.2There are phenetic and phylogenetic principles of classification
16.4A method is needed to judge the merit of a school of classification
16.5Phenetic classification uses distance measures and cluster statistics
16.6Phylogenetic classification uses inferred phylogenetic relations
16.8The principle of divergence explains why phylogeny is hierarchical
17Evolutionary Biogeography
17.1Species have defined geographic distributions
17.2Ecological characteristics of a species limit its geographic distribution
17.3Geographic distributions are influenced by dispersal
17.5Local adaptive radiations occur on island archipelagos
17.8The Great American Interchange
18The History of Life
18.3The history of life: the Precambrian
18.3.1The origin of life
18.3.2The origin of cells
18.3.3The origin of multicellular life
18.4The Cambrian explosion
18.5Evolution of land plants
18.6Vertebrate evolution
18.6.1Colonization of the land
18.7Human evolution
19Evolutionary Genomics
19.3The history of duplications can be inferred in a genomic sequence
19.4Genome size can shrink by gene loss
20.4Many genes that regulate development have been identified recently
21Rates of Evolution
22.1Coevolution can give rise to coadaptations between species
22.2Coadaptation suggests, but is not conclusive evidence of, coevolution
22.3Insect–plant coevolution
22.4Coevolutionary relations will often be diffuse
22.5Parasite–host coevolution
22.5.1Evolution of parasitic virulence
22.5.2Parasites and their hosts may have cophylogenies
22.6Coevolution can proceed in an “arms race”
23Extinction and Radiation
Adaptive radiations
23.3Mass extinctions
23.3.3Several factors can contribute to mass extinctions
23.4Distributions of extinction rates may fit a power law
23.6Species selection
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Evolution 3ed Mark Ridley

Evolution 3ed Mark Ridley

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Published by: jyannma on Oct 01, 2011
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