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Software Testing

Software Testing

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An article on Software Testing
An article on Software Testing

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03/18/2014

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Practical Road Map For Software Testing
Ms. Ranita Ganguly
Faculty Member, ICFAI National College - Garia, Kolkata, West Bengal, India
E-mail:ranita_g80@r ediffmail.com
Software Testing is a traditional method of checking out software quality. The prime
benefit of testing is that it results in an improved quality of the software.

This paper explains what are the different steps followed in Software Testing, how bugs are tracked and logged based on its Severity and Priority, what is the latest testing methodology and combinations of testing techniques applied to remove defects from the software and the different testing documents and formats required.

The software engineers build a tangible project from an abstract concept and a series of

test cases are developed with an intension to demote the software that has been built.
Testing is considered to be destructive rather than constructive. However, the objective of
testing is constructive.

1. Introduction:
Software Testing is a critical element of software quality assurance, which represents the
ultimate view of specification, design and code generation.
Testing is a critical activity requiring ample amount of time and sufficient planning.

The goal of testing is to discover defects in a program, which means bug fixing of errors in the requirement analysis, design and coding phase of developing software. The primary goal is bug prevention and secondary goal is bug discovery. In software development activities, errors are introduced due to logical errors, careless or improper communication, and the need to rush through the whole process of software development. Testing is, therefore, conducted to uncover and reduce those errors.

The basic rationale behind software testing is the process of executing software in a
controlled manner to determine whether the software performs according to the customer
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satisfaction or not. The main purpose of testing is to discover defects in a program. When planning test, reporting the status of the defect and recommending actions, it is also important to have an understanding of the relative criticality of defects.

2. What are Bugs? What is Debugging?
Bugs are errors found in a computer, during execution of the program, which is

introduced due to logical or syntactical faults. Bugs can be software bug or hardware bug. Some bugs may be deferred or postponed for fixing or locking in subsequent release of the next version of the software. These bugs are called \u2018The Deferred Bugs\u2019.

Debugging is the process of analyzing, locating and fixing bugs, when the software does

not behave as expected. Debugging is an activity, which supports testing but cannot replace them. No amount of testing is said to be sufficient to grantee a hundred percent error free software.

2.1. Severity and Priority of Bugs:
Severity indicates how serious the bug is and reflects its impact on the product and
customers of the product. It can be critical, major, minor, cosmetic or suggestion.
Critical severity:The bug is of critical severity if it causes system crash, data loss or
data corruption.
Major severity:The bug is of major severity if it causes operational errors, wrong
results and loss of functionality.
Minor severity: The bug is of minor severity if it causes defect in user interface layout or
spelling mistakes.
Priority indicates how important it is to fix the bug and when it should be fixed.
Immediate Priority:The bug is of immediate priority if it blocks further testing and is
very visible.
At the earliest Priority:The bug must be fixed at the earliest before the product is
released.
Normal Priority: The bug should be fixed if time permits.
Later Priority: The bug may be fixed, but can be released as it is.
Example: Classification of bugs as per their severity and priority.
Bug Type
Severity
Priority
Data corruption bug that happens very rarely.
Critical
Normal
Release of software, for testing that crashes as soon as you start it out.
Critical
Immediate
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A button should be moved a little further down the page
Minor
Later
3. Steps for testing software:

Smoke Testing / Sanity Testing / Gorilla Testing / Qualification Testing\ue000 Ad-hoc Testing\ue000 Write test cases from Functional Requirement Specification (FRS)\ue000 Executing test cases manually (Module Testing)\ue000 Logging / Reporting Bugs through Bug Tracking life cycle\ue000 Regression testing done to ensure stable position of software

\ue000Test Automation \ue000 Integration Testing \ue000 System Testing \ue000 User Acceptance testing

In Smoke testing each time the test team receives a new version of the program, an initial test is performed to determine whether the built is stable enough to be tested. It is a short test hitting all the major pieces of functionality i.e. \u201cA shot through the dark\u201d, to determine if the software is performing well enough to be accepted for major testing efforts.

Ad-hoc testing is a type of creative informal test that are based on formal test cases, thus

need not be documented by the testing team. Tests are random and are based on error guessing ability, knowledge of the business process. The test includes initial and later steps in testing. A program may pass at the first time but may fail for the second time.

Regression testing is done when a change is made to the source code and a new module is added. A set of predefined test cases has to be checked to determine whether any other portions of the software are affected or not.

InIntegrat ion testing the combined parts of the application are tested to determine if they together function correctly or not. They can be units, modules and their interfaces, individual applications, clients or servers.

3.1 The Bug Tracking Life Cycle:
This helps in logging bugs and has several phases.
Phase I: Tester finds the bug and these new bugs are entered in the defect tracking tools
like Bugzilla, MS-Excel, MS- word etc.
Phase II: The project leader analyses the bug and also assigns priority to them and then
passes it to the concerned developers.
Phase III: Developer fixes the bug and changes its status to \u2018Fixed\u2019 along with the \u2018Fixed\u2019
details. The new version, with all its fixtures, is then released to the Quality Control team.
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