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Fluid Mechanics White 5th edition Ch02a

Fluid Mechanics White 5th edition Ch02a

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12/07/2013

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Chapter 2
 
Pressure Distributionin a Fluid
2.1
For the two-dimensional stress fieldin Fig. P2.1, let
xxyy
3000 psf2000 ps
σ σ 
= =
 
xy
500 psf 
σ 
=
 Find the shear and normal stresses on planeAA cutting through at 30
°
.
Solution:
Make cut “AA” so that it justhits the bottom right corner of the element.This gives the freebody shown at right.Now sum forces normal and tangential toside AA. Denote side length AA as “L.”
AAn,AA
LF0(3000sin30500cos30)Lsin30(2000cos30500sin30)Lcos30
σ 
=
å
=++
 
Fig. P2.1
AA
Solve for. (a)
 Ans
σ 
2
2683 lbf/ft
 
t,AAAA
F0L(3000cos30500sin30)Lsin30(500cos302000sin30)Lcos30
τ 
å
= =
 
AA
Solve for. (b)
 Ans
τ 
2
683 lbf/ft
 
2.2
For the stress field of Fig. P2.1, change the known data to
σ 
xx
 
=
2000 psf,
σ 
yy
 
=
3000 psf,and
σ 
n
(AA)
=
2500 psf. Compute
σ 
xy
and the shear stress on plane AA.
Solution:
Sum forces normal to and tangential to AA in the element freebody above,with
σ 
n
(AA) known and
σ 
xy
unknown:
n,AAxyxy
F2500L(cos302000sin30)Lsin30(sin303000cos30)Lcos300
σ σ 
å
= °+ ° °°+ ° ° =
 
xy
Solve for(25005002250)/0.866 (a)
 Ans.
σ 
=
2
289 lbf/ft
 
 
62
 
Solutions Manual
 
 
Fluid Mechanics, Fifth Edition
 
In like manner, solve for the shear stress on plane AA, using our result for
σ 
xy
:
t,AAAA
FL(2000cos30289sin30)Lsin30(289cos303000sin30)Lcos300
τ 
å
= °+ ° °+ °+ ° ° =
 
AA
Solve for9381515 (b)
 Ans.
τ 
=
2
577 lbf/ft
 This problem and Prob. 2.1 can also be solved using Mohr’s circle.
2.3
A vertical clean glass piezometer tube has an inside diameter of 1 mm. When apressure is applied, water at 20
°
C rises into the tube to a height of 25 cm. After correctingfor surface tension, estimate the applied pressure in Pa.
Solution:
For water, let
 
=
0.073 N/m, contact angle
θ 
 
=
0
°
, and
γ 
 
=
9790 N/m
3
. Thecapillary rise in the tube, from Example 1.9 of the text, is
3
2Ycos
2(0.073 /)cos(0)0.030 m(9790 /)(0.0005 )
cap
 N mh RN m m
θ 
γ 
°= = =
 Then the rise due to applied pressure is less by that amount:
h
press
 
=
0.25 m
0.03 m
=
0.22 m.The applied pressure is estimated to be
 p
 
=
 
γ 
h
press
 
=
(9790 N/m
3
)(0.22 m)
 
2160 Pa
 
 Ans.
2.4
Given a flow pattern with isobars p
o
 
Bz
+
Cx
2
 
=
constant. Find an expressionx
=
fcn(z) for the family of lines everywhere parallel to the local pressure gradient
p.
Solution:
Find the slope (dx/dz) of the isobars and take the negative inverse andintegrate:
2opconstgradientgradient
ddxdxB1(pBzCx)B2Cx0,or:dzdzdz2Cx(dx/dz)dx2Cxdx2CdzThus,integrate ,.dzBxB
 Ans
=
+ = + = = == − =
||
ò ò 
2Cz/B
xconst e
=
 
2.5
Atlanta, Georgia, has an average altitude of 1100 ft. On a U.S. standard day, pres-sure gage A reads 93 kPa and gage B reads 105 kPa. Express these readings in gage orvacuum pressure, whichever is appropriate.
 
 
Chapter 2
 
 
Pressure Distribution in a Fluid
63
 
Solution:
We can find atmospheric pressure by either interpolating in Appendix Table A.6or, more accurately, evaluate Eq. (2.27) at 1100 ft
335 m:
g/RB5.26aoo
Bz(0.0065 K/m)(335 m)pp1(101.35 kPa)197.4 kPaT288.16 K
æ öé ù
= =
ç ÷ê úè øë û
 Therefore:Gage A93 kPa97.4 kPa4.4 kPa (gage)Gage B105 kPa97.4 kPa.
 Ans
= = == =
++
4.4 kPa (vacuum)7.6 kPa (gage)
 
2.6
Express standard atmospheric pressure as a head, h
=
p/ 
 ρ 
g, in (a) feet of ethyleneglycol; (b) inches of mercury; (c) meters of water; and (d) mm of methanol.
Solution:
Take the specific weights,
γ 
 
=
 
 ρ 
g, from Table A.3, divide p
atm
by
γ 
:(a) Ethylene glycol: h
=
(2116 lbf/ft
2
)/(69.7 lbf/ft
3
)
 
30.3 ft
 Ans.
(a)(b) Mercury: h
=
(2116 lbf/ft
2
)/(846 lbf/ft
3
)
=
2.50 ft
 
30.0 inches
 Ans
. (b)(c) Water: h
=
(101350 N/m
2
)/(9790 N/m
3
)
 
10.35 m
 Ans.
(c)(d) Methanol: h
=
(101350 N/m
2
)/(7760 N/m
3
)
=
13.1 m
 
13100 mm
 Ans.
(d)
2.7
The deepest point in the ocean is 11034 m in the Mariana Tranch in the Pacific. Atthis depth
γ 
seawater
 
10520 N/m
3
. Estimate the absolute pressure at this depth.
Solution:
Seawater specific weight at the surface (Table 2.1) is 10050 N/m
3
. It seemsquite reasonable to average the surface and bottom weights to predict the bottompressure:
bottomoabg
1005010520pph101350(11034)1.136E8 Pa2
 Ans.
γ 
+
æ ö
+ = + =
ç ÷è ø
1121 atm
 
2.8
A diamond mine is 2 miles below sea level. (a) Estimate the air pressure at thisdepth. (b) If a barometer, accurate to 1 mm of mercury, is carried into this mine, howaccurately can it estimate the depth of the mine?

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