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Photosynthesis

Photosynthesis

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PHOTOSYNTHESISDefinition:
- Green plants are autotrophic and synthesize food by the process of Photosynthesis. Action spectrum of photosynthesis determined by T.W. Englemonn in1882 using green alga. The scientist measured rate of photosynthesis as the amount of O
2
released, which he detected by using bacteria that are attract by O
2
.Study on Photosynthesis originated only about 300 years ago. JosephPriestley (1733-1804) showed the plants have the ability to take up CO
2
from theatmosphere and release O
2.
Photosynthesis:
- it is the process of preparation of food by green plants(with chlorophyll pigment) in the presence of sunlight using carbon dioxide and water as raw material. Theoverall reaction of the Photosynthesis is summarized in the following equation:-
6 CO
2
+12 H
2
O
 
C
6
H
12
O
6
+6H
2
O+6O
2
 Oxygen is released as a waste product and it is liberated from water and not form carbondioxide. (In below Figure).In the process of Photosynthesis, glucose is the main Photosynthesis product.Photosynthesis is the only process by which solar energy is converted into chemicalenergy. (A) Photosynthesis Pigment. – Chlorophyll: Chlorophyll is green pigment present in theleaves of the plants. Chlorophyll is photoreceptor molecule that plays an important role inthe Photosynthetic process. There are different types of pigment molecule likechlorophyll-a (Blue Green), chlorophyll-b (Yellow Green), xanthophylls (Yellow) andCarotene (red) present in Plants. Chl-a and Chl-b ate the most Common. Chlorophyllmolecule entrap the radiant energy from the visible sunlight which can be split up into 7colours of wave lengths. Chl-a and Chl-b absorb blue, violet and red wave lengths moreintensely and cannot absorb green light, hence the plants look green.SUNLIGHT
 
CHLOROPHYLL
 
(B) Sites of Photosynthesis- Chloroplast: Leaves are the photosynthetic organ in plants.Chloroplast (Plastids) are the more localized in the leaves. There are Photosyntheticorganelles of the cell. These can be observed under electron microscope.(C) Raw Material for Photosynthesis: the synthesis of carbohydrates( Sugar) requires twosubstances. These are carbon dioxide(CO
2
) and Water(H
2
O).1. CARBON DIOXIDE (CO
2
): - in atmosphere only 0.03% of total atmosphere is CarbonDioxide. It is released in the atmosphere by respiration decay, decomposition andcombustion. The land plants take the CO
2
from atmosphere through the Stomata.2. Water (H
2
O):- Water is the second substance required for the Photosynthesis. In thechloroplast, photolysis (Break down) of water (H
2
O) molecule into hydrogen and oxygentakes place.MECHANISM OF PHOTOSYNTHESISThe entire process photosynthesis is complete in two phases:1.LIGHT PHASE depends upon light and also called photochemical reaction.2.DARK PHASE does not required light and called dark reaction or purely chemicalreaction.(A)Light Reaction:- It is the photochemical phase of Photosynthesis. It occurs in thethylakoids of chloroplasts. These photosynthetic pigments absorb light energy in theform of photons. Light reaction involves following steps:1.Phase 1 (Photolysis of water) : in the step H
2
O splits up into H
+
and OH
-
, H
+
is used to reduce NADP (Nicotinamide Adenine dinucleotide Phosphate) to NADPH
2
which is used in dark Reaction. While OH
-
is utilized to evolve freeO
2
and release H
2
O molecule. The oxygen produced is given out of the leaf.Water is used by plants2.Phase 2 ( Photophosphorylation ) : in this step the chlorophyll molecule whenexposed to light is excited and emits electrons. These electrons are madeavailable to number of 
electron acceptors
and ATP is formed ADP andinorganic Phosphate. This ATP is used in dark reaction as energy source.The highly reactive of H
+
and OH
-
of water undergo quick changes. OH
-
 produceswater and oxygen. Water is used by the plants whereas oxygen is released intothe atmosphere. H
+
(In dark Reaction) combine with CO
2
to produce glucose. Atthe end of light reaction, following changes have occurred:(a)Formation of ATP. (b) Formation of NADPH
2.
(c) released of O
2
.(B)DARK REACTION : it is immediately followed after light reaction. This occurs inthe stroma of chloroplast. In the dark reaction ATP and NADPH
2
are used to reduce
 
CO
2
in the chloroplast for synthesis of carbon hydrates. At the end of cyclecarbohydrate is synthesized and RuBP is regenerated. Melvin Calvin and AndyBemnson discovered this cycle and it is known as
Calvin – Benson Cycle.
 
Products of photosynthesis
are glucose and oxygen. oxygen is used in respiration process of various living-beings. Glucose through various metabolic pathways frommany compounds that are needed for growth and development of body.FACTORS AFFECTING PHOTOSYNTHESIS:Two types of factors influence the process of photosynthesis:(A)INTERNAL FACTORS (B) EXTERNAL FACTRORS.Factors Affecting PhotosynthesisINTERNAL FACTORS EXTERNAL FACTORS-Chlorophyll Contents- Light-Accumulation of Products - Carbon Dioxide-Structure of leaves - Wate- Temperature- OxygenINTERNAL FACTORS:1.Chlorophyll Contents: There is no direct relationship between the rate of  photosynthesis & chlorophyll contents. It is said that entrapping, convertingand storing of radiant energy depend on the quantity of Chlorophyll.2.Accumulation products: - The product produce during photosynthesis, if notconsumed or Trans located, result in stoppage of process gradually.3.Structure of Leaves: the structure, position and distribution of stomata affectthe process directly.EXTERNAL FACTORS:1.Light: Light affect the photosynthesis by its intensity, quality, and duration.Light intensity increase the rate and green light decreased the rate of  photosynthesis.2.Carbon Dioxide: High concentration of CO
2
increased the rate of  photosynthesis but very high concentrate of CO
2
 become toxic to the plants.3.Water: The Water is essential raw material for the process. Water deficiencydecreases the rate.4.Temperature: Photosynthesis process involves the activity of a number of enzymes. Most of enzymes function at optimal temperature from 20
0
to 35
0
C .5.Oxygen: Excess of oxygen lowers the rate of Photosynthesis.

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