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Capitulo 1 Warren Phillips

Capitulo 1 Warren Phillips

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1
Chapter 1
Overview of Aerodynamics
1.1. Introduction and Notation

Flight mechanics is the science of predicting and controlling aircraft motion. From Newton\u2019s second law we know that the motion of any body depends on the forces and moments acting on the body. The forces and moments exerted on an aircraft in flight are the aerodynamic forces and moments acting on the aircraft\u2019s skin, the propulsive forces and moments created by the aircraft\u2019s engine or engines, and the gravitational force between the aircraft and the Earth. Because aerodynamic forces and moments are central to the study of aircraft motion, an understanding of the fundamentals of aerodynamics is a prerequisite to the study of flight mechanics. In this text it will be assumed that the reader has gained this prerequisite knowledge, either through the completion of at least one engineering course on aerodynamics or through independent study. In this chapter we review briefly some of the more important concepts that the reader should understand before proceeding with the material in the remainder of the book.

The aerodynamic forces and moments acting on any body moving through the
atmosphere originate from only two sources,
1. The pressure distribution over the body surface.
2. The shear stress distribution over the body surface.
A resultant aerodynamic force,
,
a
F and a resultant aerodynamic moment,
,
a
M

are the net effects of the pressure and shear stress distributions integrated over the entire surface of the body. To express these two vectors in terms of components, we must define a coordinate system. While several different coordinate systems will be used in our study of flight mechanics, the coordinate system commonly used in the study of aerodynamics is referred to here as Cartesian aerodynamic coordinates. When considering flow over a body such as an airfoil, wing, or airplane, thex-axis of this particular coordinate system is aligned with the body axis or chord line, pointing in the general direction of relative air- flow. The origin is typically located at the front of the body or leading edge. They-axis is chosen normal to thex-axis in an upward direction. Choosing a conventional right- handed coordinate system requires thez-axis to be pointing in the spanwise direction from right to left, as shown in Fig. 1.1.1. Here, the components of the resultant aerodynamic force and moment, described in this particular coordinate system, are denoted as

z
y
x
a
B
N
A
i
i
i
F
+
+
=
z
y
x
a
m
n
i
i
i
M
\u2212
\u2212
\u2212
=
l
where
x
i,
y
i, and
z
iare the unit vectors in thex-,y-, andz-directions, respectively. The
terminology that describes these components is
2Chapter 1 Overview of Aerodynamics
x
y
z
Figure 1.1.1.Cartesian aerodynamic coordinate system used in the study of aerodynamics.
A\u2261 aftward axial force \u2261 x-component of
a
F(parallel to the chord)
N\u2261 upward normal force \u2261 y-component of
a
F(normal to the chord and span)
B\u2261 leftward side force \u2261 z-component of
a
F (parallel with the span)
l
\u2261 rolling moment (positive right wing down)
n
\u2261 yawing moment (positive nose right)
m\u2261 pitching moment (positive nose up)

The traditional definitions for the moments in roll, pitch, and yaw do not follow the right- hand rule in this coordinate system. It is often convenient to split the resultant aero- dynamic force into only two components,

D\u2261drag \u2261 the component of
a
Fparallel to
\u221e
V(D=
\u221e
\u22c5i
Fa
)
L\u2261lift \u2261 the component of
a
Fperpendicular to
\u221e
V(L=|
\u221e
\u2212
i
F
D
a
|)
where
\u221e
Vis the freestream velocity or relative wind far from the body and
\u221e
iis the unit
vector in the direction of the freestream.
For two-dimensional flow, it is often advantageous to define the section force and
section moment to be the force and moment per unit span. For these definitions the
notation used in this book will be
D~
\u2261 section drag \u2261drag force per unit span (parallel to
\u221e
V)
L~
\u2261 section lift \u2261lift force per unit span (perpendicular to
\u221e
V)
A~
\u2261 section axial force \u2261axial force per unit span (parallel to chord)
N~
\u2261 section normal force \u2261normal force per unit span (perpendicular to chord)
m~
\u2261 section moment \u2261pitching moment per unit span (positive nose up)
where the chord is a line extending from the leading edge to the trailing edge of the body.
The chord length,c, is the length of this chord line.

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