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Criatividade

Criatividade

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Published by: 256-693 on Oct 02, 2011
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12/20/2012

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 Report produced for the EC funded project 
 INNOREGIO: dissemination of innovation and knowledge management techniques
by
Dr Eleni Sefertzi
J
ANUARY
2000
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C
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EGIO
project Dr E.Sefertzi
1
Contents
1Description
1.1
 
What is Creativity1.2
 
Objectives of Creativity1.3
 
Description /structure of the methodology /alternative solutions1.4
 
Expected results /benefits1.5
 
Characteristics of providers
2Application
2.1Where Creativity development has been applied2.2
 
Types of firms /organisations concerned2.3
 
Implementation cost2.4
 
Conditions for implementation
3Implementation
 BrainstormingStory boarding Lotus BlossomChecklists Morphological Analysis Mapping ProcessThe Excursion TechniqueComputer-based creativity techniques Artificial Intelligence models of creativity Idea processors softwareVisualisation and graphical systemsSpatial representation tools
4 Bibliographic referencesAnnexes
Table 1: Stimulus to extend perspective to approach a problemTable 2: Brainstorming PhasesTable 3: Osborn’s ChecklistFigure 1: Lotus Blossom sample
 
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1D
ESCRIPTION
1.1
What is Creativity
There are many definitions of creativity. A number of them suggest that creativity is thegeneration of imaginative new ideas (Newell and Shaw 1972), involving a radical newnessinnovation or solution to a problem, and a radical reformulation of problems. Otherdefinitions propose that a creative solution can simply integrate existing knowledge in adifferent way. A third set of definitions proposes that a creative solution, either new orrecombined, must have value (Higgins 1999). A novel idea is not a creative idea unless it isvaluable or it implies positive evaluation. Also, according to dt ogilvie (1998),imagination, which involves the generation of ideas not previously available as well as thegeneration of different ways of seeing events, is important to achieve creative actions.To combine this variety of definitions, we can say that creativity involves the generation of new ideas or the recombination of known elements into something new, providing valuablesolutions to a problem. It also involves motivation and emotion. Creativity “is afundamental feature of human intelligence in general. It is grounded in everyday capacitiessuch as the association of ideas, reminding, perception, analogical thinking, searching astructured problem-space, and reflecting self-criticism. It involves not only a cognitivedimension (the generation of new ideas) but also motivation and emotion, and is closelylinked to cultural context and personality factors.” (Boden 1998).According to Boden (1998), there are three main types of creativity, involving differentways of generating the novel ideas:a) The “combinational” creativity that involves new combinations of familiar ideas.b) The “exploratory” creativity that involves the generation of new ideas by theexploration of structured concepts.c) The “transformational” creativity that involves the transformation of some dimension of the structure, so that new structures can be generated.Creative thinking in a disciplined manner can play a real role in innovation. “Creativity andinnovation are normally complementary activities, since creativity generates the basis of innovation, which, in its development, raises difficulties that must be solved once again,with creativity…It is not possible to conceive innovation without creative ideas, as theseare the starting point.” (European Commission 1998).Innovation results when creativity occurs within the right organisational culture. The rightorganisational culture is one that provides through creativity processes (creativetechniques) the possibilities for the development of personal and group creativity skills. Wecan define creativity IMT as the establishment of skills by implementing creativitygeneration techniques.
1.2 Objectives of Creativity
Main objectives of a creative thinking process is to think beyond existing boundaries, toawake curiosity, to break away from rational, conventional ideas and formalisedprocedures, to rely on the imagination, the divergent, the random and to consider multiplesolutions and alternatives (Candy 1997, Schlange and Juttner 1997).

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