There was a problem sending you an sms. Check your phone number or try again later.
We've sent a link to the Scribd app. If you didn't receive it, try again.
The Universe is a very big place (Figure 1), distance between stars, are enormous, and measured in billions of light years. The speed of light, as far as we know, due to the Einstein Theory of Relativity, is constant and not possible to be surpassed . With this scenario, can we ever be able to travel to the nearest stars in a reasonable time? A reasonable time would be a less than a life time.
This image, from the Hubble
Space Telescope, of a very far
group of galaxies, give us the
impression that the Universe
The mass of an object distort the space-time.
Science Fiction movies tell us that it is possible and scientist tell us that, until they do not demonstrate the opposite, it is not impossible.
Einstein state that space and time are not two independent things, but they are the constituents of our four dimensional Universe and time is relative to
A possible solution of the Einstein\u2019s equations is a so called Wormhole (WH). A special type of WH can be used as a bridge or a tunnel between two different parts of the Universe, or maybe to another, parallel Universe, of course if we find the form to fix all the problems that arise when we try to pass through
The Theory of Relativity state that matter with mass, bend or warp the space-time (Figure 2) . If the mass is concentrated in a small radius, called the Schwarzschild
radius, gravity is so high that after entered in it, the escape
velocity is greater than the speed of light, we call it the Event Horizon (EH), but we know that the speed of light is the speed limit of
everything in the Universe, so we have a Black Hole (BH), and, nothing can leave it. The distortion of the space-time, increase as the mass tend to be infinite reduced to a single point (an infinitesimal volume, called a singularity). What happened in th
We can have two possible type of BH, a static one and a rotating one. For the static one, after passing through the EH, there is only one possibility: going deep into the singularity. But if we have a rotating BH, and this is probably the only type that exist in the Universe, there is a chance to pass through it without falling into the singularity and being destroyed.
(WhH). A WhH may be connected to the singularity of the BH and it has its own EH, but nothing can go inside, everything goes out (Figure 3). This configuration is purely theoretical, because there is no observational evidence for that. Everything that enter into a BH, after passing through the singularity, may go out from the WhH.
The configuration of a Black Hole and
a White Hole connected together by the
It is not possible to observe directly a BH, so we can see only the effect that the BH gravity carry on the matter near the EH (Figure 4).
In this Hubble Space Telescope
picture we see what we think is the
accretion disk around a Black Hole
in the nucleus of the Galaxy NGC4261
If the space-time is highly folded (Figure 5) it is possible to have a passage or a bridge, as Einstein called it, or a Wormhole (WH), this is also the connection of a BH and a WhH. The connection was discovered in the decade of 1930 by the same Einstein and Rosen. In this case we have a channel or a tunnel connecting two different part of the Universe. This folded
folded space time and
the wormhole tunnel.
Every object in the Universe are in rotation, so this type of WH may exist. If a massive rotating star (more than 3 solar masses) collapses, the resulting BH has not a point like singularity, but it is in form of a ring. In principle there is a possibility for a particle to cross the ring-form singularity without its destruction.
WH (Figure 6). These are very tiny tunnels with dimensions much smaller than that of an electron. They can be explained only by Quantum mechanics, they are connecting our Universe with many other Universes and also many parts of our own Universe. In general the above acteristics are true for all type of WH.
unstable, it can survive, or left open, for a time much less than the light travel time needed to cross it. Of course it is not an observable thing H.
e or visit Parallel Universes. They present this as something relatively easy. Unfortunately, many writers do not have any scientific background and left Sci-Fi readers with the wrong idea of what is a WH or a time travel experience.
point of view. A WH give us the possibility to jump to the past or jump to another Universe. The traveler needs to solve many problems if he want to survive, return and tell the story to someone else:
, so conventional mass can not do the job, because it accelerate the instability closing the WH almost instantaneously. A possible solution is using some Exotic matter  as Thorne, Morris and Yurtsever demonstrate in 1988. This exotic matter can solve the
Now bringing you back...
Does that email address look wrong? Try again with a different email.