The need for pinning stones
When traditional rubble stone masonry walls were originally constructed it was commonpractice to use a variety o small stones, calledpinnings, to make the larger stones securein the wall. Both the large and small stones were bedded, or set, in lime mortar (although,occasionally, clay was used as a mortar).Troughout the country a variety o materials were used in constructing walls, and to makethem as structurally sound and weather-tightas possible. Tis gave rubble walls distinctively varied appearances across the country depending upon what local practices andmaterials were used.Depending upon the region, the lime mortarnish around the stones could be fush orslightly recessed so that all o the stone acescould be obviously seen. Elsewhere the mortarcan be ound to be progressively smeared overthe aces o the rough stones until the nalnish almost emerges as a ull lime render.In other areas additional lines o small stones were pushed into the wet mortar or joint lines were drawn onto the wall ace beore it set togive the impression o squared stonework.Irrespective o the nish, the underlyingrubble stones were generally originally built sothat the stones and smaller pinnings touchedeach other. In that way the structural load o the wall could be satisactorily carried to itsoundation whilst the mortar still had to set.Tis building process is an important pointto bear in mind when carrying out repointing work because, i it is ignored, the visualappearance o the wall can be signicantly altered.