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Published by: api-3709748 on Oct 15, 2008
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1 Introduction Sharp Practice: Anthropology and theStudy of Corruption 1 
Cris Shore and Dieter Haller 
Part I Corruption in ‘Transitional’ Societies?
2 The Sack of Two Cities: Organized Crime and PoliticalCorruption in Youngstown and Palermo 29 
 Jane Schneider and Peter Schneider 
3 Bribes, Gifts and Unofficial Payments: RethinkingCorruption in Post-Soviet Russian Health Care 47 
 Michele Rivkin-Fish
4 Corruption as a Transitional Phenomenon: UnderstandingEndemic Corruption in Postcommunist States 65 
 David W. Lovell
5 Corruption, Property Restitution and Romanianness 83 
 Filippo M. Zerilli
Part II Institutionalized Corruption and Institutions of Anti-corruption
6 Integrity Warriors: Global Morality and theAnti-corruption Movement in the Balkans 103 
Steven Sampson
7 Culture and Corruption in the EU: Reflections on Fraud,Nepotism and Cronyism in the European Commission 131 
Cris Shore
8. Corruption in Corporate America: Enron Before andAfter 156 
Carol MacLennan
Part III Narratives and Practices of Everyday Corruption
9 Narrating the State of Corruption 173 
 Akhil Gupta
10 Where the Jeeps Come From: Narratives of Corruptionin the Alentejo (Southern Portugal) 194 
 Dorle Dracklé 
11 Citizens Despite the State: Everyday Corruption andLocal Politics in El Alto, Bolivia 212 
Sian Lazar 
12 Afterword Anthropology and Corruption: The State of the Art 229 
 Dorothy Louise ZinnContributors
Cris Shore and Dieter Haller 
The context for this book was set by several incidents, foremostamong which were the dramatic fraud and corruption scandals thatrocked corporate America at the end of 2001 following the collapseof the US energy corporation Enron. Some authors have predictedthat in years to come the Enron scandal, not the terrorist attacksof 11 September, will be seen as the greater turning point in USsociety
– an unlikely claim, but one that invites us to ask what deeperlessons are to be learned from an analysis of what happened.
Enron’sdemise was precipitated by revelations about its complex financialmanoeuvres designed to hide debt and conceal its various offshoreand off-balance sheet partnerships. These were created in order togive a false impression of the company’s profitability and makemillionaires of its senior managers. Its success in both of these aimswas exemplary – at least in the short term. However, in December2001 Enron filed the largest bankruptcy petition in the history of the United States. Three months later, Enron’s accountants ArthurAndersen were also indicted on criminal charges of obstructionof justice and ‘knowingly, intentionally and corruptly’ inducingemployees to shred documents relating to Enron (Gledhill 2003). Thesheer magnitude of these accountancy scandals was unprecedented,as was the fact that they occurred at the heart of the US financialsystem. Yet barely three months later, in June 2002, they were eclipsedby an even larger scandal when the global telecoms giant WorldComwas discovered to have inflated its profits by $3.8 billion – a figurelater revised upwards to a staggering $7 billion.
 What is significant about these events from an anthropologicalperspective is that they remind us that Europeans and Americanscannot assume that grand corruption is something that belongsprimarily to the non-Western ‘Other’ or to public-sector officialsin defective state bureaucracies: corruption (both massive andsystemic), we should not be surprised to learn, can also be found1

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