different methods, different shifts, etc.) or quantitative (different temperatures indegrees, speeds, weight, etc.)
The investigator needs an experimental design for obtaining data that provide objective results with a minimum expenditure of time and resources.
How many observations are needed?
One of the first questions we face when designing an experiment is: Howmany observations are to be taken? Considerations of how large a difference isto be detected, how much variation is present, and what size risks can betolerated, what kind of measurement internal or external, precision and accuracyof readings, destructive or not destructive, are all important in answering thisquestion.Sometimes there is no other option and you only have one reading as aresponse by experiment, but, it is recommended that if possible, obtain as manyreplicates as can be economical or practical. You can obtain very valuableinformation when you analyze more than one replication of your experiments,especially if your software is capable of handling replicates.
Order of experimentation:
It is recommended that you randomize the sequence of the experimentorder, although it depends sometimes of the experiment logistic.
There are several models of experimentation where the ANOVA Methodand Yates Algorithm is applied, but G. Taguchi uses the Orthogonal Arrays L4,L8, L12, L16, L32 for two level factors and L9, L18 and L27 for Three levelfactors, to accommodate the experiments on rows and factors and levels oncolumns.I prefer to use symbols (
) and (+) to indicate different category of level,low or high within the Orthogonal array, because you are going to find theinteractions between factors or columns when you simply multiply algebraicallysigns of each column, then in other column will be the resulting sign of theinteraction.
Theory and Practice:
We are going to run an experiment in parallel theory and practice. Note: This helicopter design is property of the author C.G.G. (You canuse only giving credit of it)In this first experiment we have three factors that we are going to studyfor flying time of the helicopter (higher is better).