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Doe Tag Article Cgg1

Doe Tag Article Cgg1

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Design of Experiment using Taguchi Method and DOETAG_EN Software from www.spc-inspector.com/cgg
Design of Experiment using Taguchi Method and DOETAG_EN Software from www.spc-inspector.com/cgg

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Published by: cgg1115572 on Oct 15, 2008
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10/12/2010

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C A R L O S G O N Z Á L E Z G O N Z Á L E ZA S Q FELLOW – MASTER BLACK BELT
Consultores
 
CUAUTITLÁN IZCALLI ESTADO DE MEXICO
C.G.G
 
Cuautitlán Izcalli Estado de México October 14 2008Author: Carlos González G.Subject: DOE Theory and PracticePhD. Genichi Taguchi created the named Taguchi Method for designingexperiments. He was born on January the 1
st
. of 1924 in Japan. He graduatedfrom Kiryu Technical College. After serving in the Astronomical Department of the Navigation Institute of the Imperial Japanese Navy in from 1942 to 1945, hewas working in the Ministry of Public Health and Welfare and at the Institute of Statistical Mathematics, Ministry of Education.1946: R. L. Plackett and J. P. Burman presented a methodology of creation of Orthogonal Arrays to be applied to Design of Experiments writingthe article “The Design of Optimal Multifactorial Experiments” in the JournalBiometrika (vol. 35), these methods were studied by G. Taguchi and the prize-winning Japanese Statistician Matosaburo Masuyama, whom he met while hewas working at the Ministry of Public Health and Morinaga Pharmaceuticals.1949: G. Taguchi joined the Electrical Communications Laboratory of  NTT Co. until 1961 to increase the productivity of its R&D actions, at that timehe began to develop his methodology now named Taguchi Method or RobustEngineering. G. Taguchi’s first book which introduced the orthogonal arrays,was published in 1951.1951 and 1953: he won Deming Prize award for literature.During 1954 and 1955 G. Taguchi met in India to Ronald A. Fisher andWalter Andrew Shewhart. In 1957 and 1958 he published his two volume book “Design of Experiments”.1960: G. Taguchi won the Deming Application Prize.1962: He visited USA and Princeton University visiting too AT&T BellLaboratories, there he met statistician John Tukey. This year too, received hisPhD in Science from Kyushu University.1964: G. Taguchi and several coauthors wrote “Management by TotalResults”.First applications outside Japan of Taguchi Methods were in Taiwan andIndia during 1960’s. In this period and throughout 1970s most applications wereon production processes.
 
Taguchi Methods applied in product design began later in the early 1970sG. Taguchi develop the concept of Quality Loss Function, publishing other two books and the 3
rd
. edition of “Design of Experiments”.In the Late 1970 he earned recognition in Japan and abroad.1980: G. Taguchi visited again AT&T Bell Laboratories runningexperiments within Bell Laboratories, after this visit more and more industriesand Universities in U.S.A. implemented the Taguchi Methodology.1982: G. Taguchi became an advisor at the Japanese StandardsAssociation and Chairman of the Quality Control Research Group.1984: G. Taguchi again won the Deming Prize for literature.G. Taguchi received recognitions for his contributions to industriesworldwide:The Willard F. Rockwell Jr. Medal.The Shewhart Medal from ASQC.The Blue Ribbon Award from the Emperor of Japan in 1990 for hiscontributions to industry.ASQ Honorary Member (1997).Induction into the Automotive Hall of Fame and the World Level of theHall of Fame for Engineering, Science, and Technology.G. Taguchi is Executive Director of the American Supplier Institute Inc.in Dearborn Michigan.Honorary Professor at Nanjing Institute of Technology in China.Classical experimentation is based on Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)and the Taguchi Method includes Analysis of Variance too.
Experiments:
Ch. Hicks & K. Turner define experiment as:
“The experiment includes a statement of the problem to be solved. Thissounds rather obvious, but in practice it often takes quite a while to get generalagreement as to the statement of a problem. It is important to bring out all the points of view to establish just what the experiment is intended to do. A carefulstatement of the problem goes a long way toward its solution”
.
Response Variables:
The statements of the problem must include reference to at least onecharacteristic of an experimental unit on which information is to be obtained.Such characteristics are called response.
Independent Variables:
Many controllable experimental variables, called independent variables or factors may contribute to the value of the response variable. Factor variablescould have two levels, these levels can be qualitative (different suppliers,
 
different methods, different shifts, etc.) or quantitative (different temperatures indegrees, speeds, weight, etc.)
The Design:
The investigator needs an experimental design for obtaining data that provide objective results with a minimum expenditure of time and resources.
How many observations are needed?
One of the first questions we face when designing an experiment is: Howmany observations are to be taken? Considerations of how large a difference isto be detected, how much variation is present, and what size risks can betolerated, what kind of measurement internal or external, precision and accuracyof readings, destructive or not destructive, are all important in answering thisquestion.Sometimes there is no other option and you only have one reading as aresponse by experiment, but, it is recommended that if possible, obtain as manyreplicates as can be economical or practical. You can obtain very valuableinformation when you analyze more than one replication of your experiments,especially if your software is capable of handling replicates.
Order of experimentation:
It is recommended that you randomize the sequence of the experimentorder, although it depends sometimes of the experiment logistic.
Model Description:
There are several models of experimentation where the ANOVA Methodand Yates Algorithm is applied, but G. Taguchi uses the Orthogonal Arrays L4,L8, L12, L16, L32 for two level factors and L9, L18 and L27 for Three levelfactors, to accommodate the experiments on rows and factors and levels oncolumns.I prefer to use symbols (
) and (+) to indicate different category of level,low or high within the Orthogonal array, because you are going to find theinteractions between factors or columns when you simply multiply algebraicallysigns of each column, then in other column will be the resulting sign of theinteraction.
Theory and Practice:
We are going to run an experiment in parallel theory and practice. Note: This helicopter design is property of the author C.G.G. (You canuse only giving credit of it)In this first experiment we have three factors that we are going to studyfor flying time of the helicopter (higher is better).

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