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Super Symmetry and Cosmology - J

Super Symmetry and Cosmology - J

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arXiv:hep-p
h/0405215v2
27Sep2004
SUPERSYMMETRY AND COSMOLOGY
Jonathan L. Feng\u2217
Department of Physics and Astronomy
University of California, Irvine, CA 92697
ABSTRACT

Cosmology now provides unambiguous, quantitative evidence for new particle physics. I discuss the implications of cosmology for supersym- metry and vice versa. Topics include: motivations for supersymmetry; su- persymmetry breaking; dark energy; freeze out and WIMPs; neutralino dark matter; cosmologically preferred regions of minimal supergravity; direct and indirect detection of neutralinos; the DAMA and HEAT sig- nals; in\ufb02ation and reheating; gravitino dark matter; Big Bang nucleosyn- thesis; and the cosmic microwave background. I conclude with specula- tions about the prospects for a microscopic description of the dark universe, stressing the necessity of diverse experiments on both sides of the particle physics/cosmology interface.

\u2217c
\ue0002004 by Jonathan L. Feng.
Contents
1 Introduction
3
2 SupersymmetryEssentials
4
2.1 A New Spacetime Symmetry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4
2.2 Supersymmetry and the Weak Scale. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5
2.3 The Neutral Supersymmetric Spectrum. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7
2.4R-Parity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8
2.5 Supersymmetry Breaking and Dark Energy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

9 2.6 MinimalSupergravity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 2.7 Summary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

3 NeutralinoCosmology
15
3.1 Freeze Out and WIMPs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

3.2 Thermal Relic Density. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 3.2.1 BulkRegion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 3.2.2 Focus Point Region. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 3.2.3A Funnel Region. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 3.2.4 Co-annihilationRegion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

3.3 DirectDetection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

3.4 IndirectDetection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 3.4.1 Positrons. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 3.4.2 Photons. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 3.4.3 Neutrinos. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

3.5 Summary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
4 GravitinoCosmology
34

4.1 GravitinoProperties. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 4.2 Thermal Relic Density. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 4.3 Production during Reheating. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 4.4 Production from Late Decays. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 4.5 Detection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

4.5.1 EnergyRelease. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 4.5.2 Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 4.5.3 The Cosmic Microwave Background. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

2
4.6 Summary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
5 Prospects
49

5.1 The Particle Physics/Cosmology Interface. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 5.2 The Role of Colliders. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 5.3 Synthesis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 5.4 Summary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

6 Acknowledgments
55
References
55
1 Introduction

Not long ago, particle physicists could often be heard bemoaning the lack of unam- biguous, quantitative evidence for physics beyond their standard model. Those days are gone. Although the standard model of particle physics remains one of the great triumphs of modern science, it now appears that it fails at even the most basic level \u2014 providing a reasonably complete catalog of the building blocks of our universe.

Recent cosmological measurements have pinned down the amount of baryon, mat- ter, and dark energy in the universe.1,2 In units of the critical density, these energy densities are

\u2126B = 0.044\u00b1 0.004
(1)
\u2126matter = 0.27\u00b1 0.04
(2)
\u2126\u039b = 0.73\u00b1 0.04,
(3)
implying a non-baryonic dark matter component with
0.094< \u2126DMh2 < 0.129 (95% CL),
(4)

whereh\u22430.71 is the normalized Hubble expansion rate. Both the central values and uncertainties were nearly unthinkable even just a few years ago. These measurements are clear and surprisingly precise evidence that the known particles make up only a small fraction of the total energy density of the universe. Cosmology now provides overwhelming evidence for new particle physics.

3

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