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iiser9

# iiser9

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03/18/2014

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IISER Kolkata
IISER Kolkata
IISER Kolkata
\ue002
\ue000
\ue001
Examples and Solutions
The sequence(xn) withx\u2208 \ue000 is convergent iff\u22121< x \u22641
(i)Letx >1 and writex= 1 + h, whereh >0. Then,
xn= (1 + h)n = 1+ nh+nC2h2+nC3h3+ . . .+ hn
\u21d2xn >1 + nh
Let R be a positive number , however large.1 +nh > R if
n >(R\u22121)/h. Thus\u2200 n > m= [(R\u22121)/h] + 1
xn>1 + nh > R\u21d2(xn)\u2192 \u221e.
(ii)Let x=1. Clearly in this casexn= 1 for alln so(xn)\u2192 1
(iii)Let x=-1. Again clearly(xn) =\u00b11 according to whether n is even or
odd. So the sequence oscillates \ufb01nitely.
\u2013 p.
IISER Kolkata
IISER Kolkata
IISER Kolkata
\ue002
\ue000
\ue001
Examples and Solutions
(iv)Let0< x < 1, so we writex= 1/(1 + h) h >0. then
0< xn= 1/(1 +h)n<1/(1 + nh). Now given \ue000 >0however small,
1/(1 +nh)< \ue000if n > (1/\ue000\u2212 1)/h. If we now take m = [(1/\ue000\u2212 1)/h] + 1,
then
\u2200n > m,0 < xn< \ue000\u21d2 | xn|< \ue000
This meanslim(xn) = 0
(iv)Letx= 0. Herexn= 0 for alln solimxn = 0.
(v)Let\u22121< x < 0. Writex=\u2212y so0< y < 1. Since
|xn|=yn < \ue000 \u2200n > mlim xn= 0
(vi)Letx <\u22121. Then takex=\u2212y y>1. Thenxn= (\u2212y)n so the
sequence oscillates in\ufb01nitely.
\u2013 p.
IISER Kolkata
IISER Kolkata
IISER Kolkata
\ue002
\ue000
\ue001
Examples and Solutions
limn1/n = 1
Letan= n1/n, so forn >1, an= 1 + hn
hn >0. Then,
n= an= (1 + hn)2 = 1 + nh+n(n\u22121)
2
h2n+ ...+ hnn >n(n\u22121)
2
h2n
So,h2n <2/(n\u22121) \u21d20 < hn <
p2/(n\u2212 1)< \ue000\u2200 n > m = [1 + 2/\ue0002] + 1
This implieshn\u21920soan\u21921
\u2013 p.