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Current Situation of Dairy Industry and Future Concern

Current Situation of Dairy Industry and Future Concern

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Published by ALTAF HUSAIN

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Published by: ALTAF HUSAIN on Oct 03, 2011
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04/21/2012

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ALTAF HUSAIN..................................................08-arid-282DVM 5
th
....................................LM-301
CURRENT SITUATION OF DAIRY INDUSTRY ANDFUTURE CONCERN IN PAKISTAN
The main economy generating sector of Pakistan is agriculture which shares the 23% of national GDP and provides the work to 42% of labour force. Among the agriculture livestock isthe major sub sector. According to FAO data in 2003-04 the money earned estimates 1537billion rupees, which was 11% of the national exchange. In the agriculture sector the share of livestock is 53.2% where as in GDP is 10.8%. In livestock the major share is of milk which is51%. In milk production Pakistan is at fifth position in world with 28 billion litre/Annam. Thisproduction can be increased but this development and effective need to work as companion.Pakistan has very suitable conditions for dairy forming. The plains are irrigatedthrough canal system. The northern areas have suitable climate and grazing pastures. Due todecreasing land for crop production this only sector which will be profitable in future.
Current Situation the Sector
 
Pakistan is facing many problems in dairy sector which are;1.
 
Scattered faming and small herd size2.
 
Poor genetic potential3.
 
Poor quality feedstuff 4.
 
Environmental stresses5.
 
Reproductive disorders6.
 
Long calving interval and age at first caving7.
 
Tick infestation and dermatitis8.
 
Poor marketing system9.
 
Unavailability of skilled man power for dairy industry10.
 
Lack of commercial feeds11.
 
Improper service of artificial insemination12.
 
Seasonal availability of fodder13.
 
Buffalo is seasonal breeder
Dairy Breeds
Pakistan has world-known buffalo breeds Nili-Ravi and Kundi, and in cattle Sahiwal,Red Sinhi and Aga Kheli breeds. But the buffalo is major contributor. Current population of cattle is 34.3 million and buffalo is 30.8 million.
 
Dairy Production system
There is no proper production system in Pakistan. People keep animals for their ownneeds. The priority is given to crop production rather the milk production, so there is acompetition between livestock and crop production. But now the trend is changing. Theproduction systems are;
 
1.
 
Grazing system2.
 
Mixed farming system3.
 
Peri-urban dairy colonies
Grazing system
This system is more suitable for sheep and goat, and little bit dairy animals i.e. buffalo,cow. This system includes non-descript animals but some include exotic breeds also. This systemis adopted where lands are not fit for agriculture i.e. in arid areas mostly in Sindh andBalochistan. In northern areas yak is the major animal. In irrigated areas this system prominentalong the canal, riverbanks, roadsides and wasteland vegetation. The animals mostly kept forhousehold needs.
Mixed Farming System
This system includes 2-15 animals. The major source of income is milk from such farms.This system adopted in the lands suitable for crop production. The wastes and crop by productsare used as feed. Some farms are advance that are small holder dairying. The also usedconcentrate feeds and better keeping practices. These farms include both buffaloes and cows.
Progressive Farmers
In Pakistan now trend is going towards progressive dairy farming units they use artificialinsemination to produce Friesian crosses breeds. They may be completely milk production farmsor mixed crop-livestock farms. There numbers are very less but these will be models for future.
Rural commercial Forms
Theses are the emerging commercial units and their future is bright. These have up to onethousand animals among them 90% buffalo and 10% cattle. They keep about 60% lactatinganimals.
Peri-urban Dairy Colonies/Farms
Due to restriction of keeping animals in metropolitan cities to avoid pollution problems,the large dairy farms were established in the peri-urban areas to overcome the urban demand formilk. These are most common among the peripheral areas of big cities like Karachi, Lahore andFaisalabad. This system is more developed and advanced as comparable to other systems. Thesehave almost all adult animals and among them 90% buffaloes which 95% lactating. The turnover from these farms is maximum. The lactating or animals close to calving are purchased. Thecalves are mostly sold for slaughter. The milk is obtained by offering high feed and concentrates.They get milk from animal at least for 250-300 days and then animals sold for slaughter or returnto rural areas for conception.
Milk Consumption Pattern
In Pakistan most of the milk produced is used for house needs. The surplus milk is soled.55% milk produced is used as fresh milk and remaining is converted to yogurt, lassi, butter,cheese, ice cream, sweats. 25% of milk produced is used in urban areas and reaming 70% in ruralareas.
 
 
Milk Marketing
Marketing of Raw Milk
In Pakistan milk is collected by marketing channels which includes first stage collector"Katcha dodhis", "Pacca dodhis". The "katcha dodhis" are the key persons of our industry. Theycollect the milk from farmer and either directly sold to shops and urban area or to "Paccadodhis". The "pacca dodhis" have better transports they supply to the collection centres or to themilk shops or hotels after decreaming. The peri-urban produces directly sell to consumers ormilk shop. The adulteration and decreaming is done at all levels of milk collection. Due todevelopment of processing units the "Pacca dodhis" sell milk to them.
Collection Centres
The milk processing factories have established collection centres. They have developedsome co-operatives and Village Livestock Associations. These associations supply milk to thecollection centres. The factory provides the chilling plants and insulated road tank to thecollection centres for proper handling.
Direct Marketing
The progressive farmers provide milk on contract basis to distributors, milk shops orprocessing plants.
Milk Processing
The processed liquid milk type available is UHT milk which is produced by eightindustries/plants. The UHT has a standard fat 3.5% and solid-not-fat content 8.9%. The demandfor UHT milk is increasing day by day.
Future Demand for Milk and dairy Products
The demand for milk and products will be continue to increase due to the increasingpopulation. If this situation continues then there will be deficiency of 519 million litres in 2010-11.
Future of Dairy Industry in Pakistan
Due to the big share in GDP now the government of Pakistan is considering this sector asthe future of Pakistan. Government along with SWOG indentified the problems and setupstrategies to improve this sector. SMEDA is also providing support.
Bench Making
SWOG adopted the New Zealand and Australia as best Models and India as comparablemodel to seek technical assistance from AMUL.They started some projects which are;1.
 
Milk collection and chilling project2.
 
NRSP joint milk collection pilot project

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