Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
10Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Organic Chem Reactions

Organic Chem Reactions

Ratings: (0)|Views: 511|Likes:
H2 Chemistry Organic Chem Reactions
H2 Chemistry Organic Chem Reactions

More info:

Published by: Teo Jia Ming Nickolas on Oct 03, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as DOCX, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

12/16/2013

pdf

text

original

 
Done by Nickolas Teo Jia Ming, CG 12/11
Organic Chem Reactions
1.
 
Alkanes
a.
 
Reactions
 
Combustion
 
Free-radical substitution
o
 
Steps
 
Initiation
 
Propagation
 
Termination
o
 
Conditions
 
Cl
2
(g)/Br
2
(l), UV lightb.
 
Formation
 
Hydrogenation of Alkenes
o
 
H
2
(g) with Nickel catalyst, at ~150
o
C, ~5atm
o
 
H
2
(g) with Pt or Pd catalyst, at room temperature
 
Decarboxylation of sodium salt of carboxylic acid
o
 
Heating with sodalime
2.
 
Alkenes
 a.
 
Reactions
 
Addition of bromine
o
 
Br
2
(l) / Br
2
dissolved in CCl
4
, room temperature
 
Addition of bromine water
o
 
Bromine water at room temperature
 
Addition of HBr
o
 
HBr(g)/ HBr dissolved in CCl
4
, room temperature
 
Direct hydration
o
 
Steam, H
3
PO
4
catalyst, 300
o
C, 65 atm
 
Indirect hydration
o
 
Cold concentrated H
2
SO
4
, followed by heating in the presence of water
 
Addition of Hydrogen
o
 
H
2
(g) with Nickel catalyst, at ~150
o
C, ~5atm
o
 
H
2
(g) with Pt or Pd catalyst, at room temperature
 
Oxidation
o
 
Partial bond cleavage
 
Cold alkali/ cold, dilute acidified KMnO
4
 
o
 
Total bond cleavage
 
Hot, acidified KMnO
4
 
 
Combustionb.
 
Formation
 
Dehydration of Alcohols
o
 
Excess, concentrated H
2
SO
4
, 180
o
C
o
 
Al
2
O
3
, 400
o
C
 
Dehydrohalogenation of halogenoalkane
 
Done by Nickolas Teo Jia Ming, CG 12/11
o
 
Alcoholic KOH, relfux
3.
 
Benzene
 a.
 
Reactions
 
Nitration
o
 
Concentrated HNO
3
, concentrated H
2
SO
4
, reflux at less than 60
o
C
 
Halogenation
o
 
Anhydrous AlCl
3
/ FeCl
3
/ Fe power, at room temperature
 
Friedel-Crafts Alkylation
o
 
Anhydrous AlCl
3
/ FeCl
3
/ Fe power, at room temperature
 
Friedel-Crafts Acylation
o
 
Anhydrous AlCl
3
/ FeCl
3
/ Fe power, at room temperature
4.
 
Alkylbenzene
 a.
 
Reactions (side-chain)
 
Halogenation
o
 
Cl
2
(g)/Br
2
(l), UV light
 
Oxidation
o
 
Alkaline/ acidified KMnO
4
, reflux
o
 
Entire side chain is oxidized into CO
2
Hb.
 
Formation
 
Friedel-Crafts Alkylation
o
 
Anhydrous AlCl
3
/ FeCl
3
/ Fe power, at room temperature
5.
 
Alcohols
 a.
 
Reactions
 
Esterification
o
 
Concentrated H
2
SO
4
, reflux
 
Acylation
 
Halogenation (hydrogen halide)
o
 
NaCl(s), concentrated H
2
SO
4
, reflux
o
 
HX, reflux
 
Halogenation (phosphorus halide)
o
 
Cold PCl
5
 
o
 
Red P and Br
2
, reflux
o
 
Red P and I
2
, reflux
 
Halogenation (Sulfur dichloride oxide)
o
 
SOCl
2
, dissolved in pyridine
 
Dehydration
o
 
Excess, concentrated H
2
SO
4
, 180
o
C
o
 
Al
2
O
3
, 400
o
C
 
Formation of alkyl hydrogensulfate
o
 
Concentrated H
2
SO
4
, reflux at 80
o
C
 
Combustion
 
Oxidation
o
 
For aldehyde
 
Acidified K
2
Cr
2
O
7
, heat to distill
o
 
For carboxylic acid/ ketone
 
Done by Nickolas Teo Jia Ming, CG 12/11
 
Acidified K
2
Cr
2
O
7
/ KMnO
4 
, refluxb.
 
Formation
 
Alkaline hydrolysis of halogenoalkane
o
 
Aqueous KOH, reflux
 
Direct hydration of alkenes
o
 
Steam, H
3
PO
4
catalyst, 300
o
C, 65 atm
 
Indirect hydration of alkenes
o
 
Cold concentrated H
2
SO
4
, followed by heating in the presence of water
 
Reduction of carbonyl compounds
o
 
H
2
(g) with Ni catalyst at 140
o
C
o
 
LiAlH
4
, dissolved in dry ether at room temperaturec.
 
Test
 
Tri-iodomethane/ Iodoform test
o
 
Alkaline I
2
(aq), heat
o
 
Solid I
2
, NaOH(aq), heat
o
 
NaOI(l), heat
6.
 
Phenol
 a.
 
Reactions
 
Esterification
o
 
Acid chloride and NaOH(aq)
 
Halogenation
o
 
Br
2
dissolved in CCl
4
 
o
 
Chlorine/ Bromine water at room temperature
 
Nitration
o
 
Dilute HNO
3
, room temperatureb.
 
Test
 
Neutral Iron(III) chloride solution at room temperature
o
 
Violet coloration
 
Bromine water at room temperature
o
 
Decolourisation and white precipitate
7.
 
Aliphatic carbonyl compounds
 a.
 
Reactions
 
Oxidation of aldehydes
o
 
Acidified K
2
Cr
2
O
7
/ KMnO
4 
, heat
o
 
Alkaline KMnO
4 
, heat
o
 
Tollen’s Reagent
, heat
 
Ammoniacal silver(I) nitrate
o
 
Fehling’s Solution
, heat
 
Alkaline copper(II) tartrate
 
Reduction
o
 
H
2
(g) with Ni catalyst at 140
o
C
o
 
LiAlH
4
, dissolved in dry ether at room temperature
 
Addition of HCN
o
 
Slightly alkaline HCN (aq) at 10-20
o
C

Activity (10)

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.
1 thousand reads
1 hundred reads
Gopi Kupuchitty liked this
Fatima Siddiqui liked this
edenadam liked this
suuenn liked this
Jereme Cheong liked this
Jereme Cheong liked this
Vernon liked this

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->