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Some Useful Linux Commands

Some Useful Linux Commands

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Published by: api-3736383 on Oct 15, 2008
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03/18/2014

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some useful linux commands
steve ambler
february 2002

contents
1 introduction
2 shorthand at the command prompt
3 typical dot files
4 useful files
5 important directories
6 important bash shell variables
7 important daemons and startup services
8 window managers
9 alphabetical list of principal commands

10 notes on applications
10.1 mail transfer agents (mtas)
10.2 mail user agents (muas)

10.3 editors
10.4 other
11 some nifty slogans
12 references
1 introduction

this is my own summary of useful linux
abbreviations, directories, files, and commands. i
use my own annotations to recall useful options
and arguments that are not necessarily

documented in easy-to-find places. i quite often
call up this file when i can't remember the syntax
of a command that i use often (but not often
enough to remember the syntax!). i also
editorialize on the relative usefulness of different
types of programs.

this document is work in progress. send suggested
changes and corrections to
ambler.steven@uqam.ca

o'reilly has just published online an alphabetical
list of commands from linux in a nutshell. it is
availablehere. it contains more detailed
explanations of many of the commands listed here.

2 shorthand at the command prompt

some of these are specific to the bash shell. i have
not experimented enough with other shells to
know which are common to all shells. see also the
``bash reference card'', ssc (2000), available
online.

4 / - root directory
5 ./ - current directory
6 ./command_name - run a command in the

current directory when the current directory
is not on the path
7 ../ - parent directory
8~ - home directory
9 $ - typical prompt when logged in as ordinary
user
10# - typical prompt when logged in as root or

superuser
11! - repeat specified command
12!! - repeat previous command

13^^ - repeat previous command with
substitution
14& - run a program in background mode
15[tab][tab] - prints a list of all available

commands. this is just an example of
autocomplete with no restriction on the first
letter.

16x[tab][tab] - prints a list of all available completions for a command, where the beginning is ``x''

17[alt][ctrl][f1] - switch to the first
virtual text console
18[alt][ctrl][fn] - switch to the nth virtual
text console. typically, there are six on a linux
pc system.

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