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TEC-GEN-1B-E1

TEC-GEN-1B-E1

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07/27/2014

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302 Enzo Drive

San Jose CA 95138 USA
ph 1 408 363 8000
fax 1 408 363 8313
info@sunrisetelecom.com
www.sunrisetelecom.com

\u2026 a step ahead
Technology Series
Introduction to E1/2.048 Mbit/s
Publication Number TEC-GEN-001 Rev. B
2
\u00a9 2001 Sunrise Telecom Incorporated
Introduction to E1/2.048 Mbit/s
1 OVERVIEW

This technology note will introduce you to the basic
concepts in 2.048 Mbit/s technology, including sampling
a signal, line coding, framing, and basic alarms/errors.
This note can be used as an introduction to the technol-
ogy, as well as a field reference guide for everyday use.

2 PDH STRUCTURE
PDH: Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy
\u2022 Numerous signals, almost synchronous, are received
at a mux, where they are multiplexed into a single signal.
\u2022 The entire signal must be demultiplexed in order to
switch one lower-order signal.

\u2022 No standards exist for optical transmission equip-
ment, meaning different manufacturers make
equipment to different standards, so the equipment
may not interoperate.

\u2022 The E1 or 2.048 Mbit/s signal (bitstream) is achieved
by multiplexing 32 individual 64 kbit/s bitstreams.
3 DIGITIZING A VOICE SIGNAL

To transmit voice in a digital medium such as a 2.048
Mbit/s line, the analog voice signal needs to be trans-
formed into a binary format, then converted into a
bitstream suitable for digital transmission.

3.1 Sampling/Nyquist Theorem

A signal must be sampled at a minimum of twice its
maximum frequency in order to be reconstructed in an
analog format without major loss of information.

\u2022 For voice signals, a maximum frequency of 4000 Hz
provides adequate clarity and contains the majority
of the information while conserving transmission
bandwidth. Thus, a 4000 Hz voice signal must be
sampled at at least 8000 samples per second.

\u2022 Each amplitude value (sample) is expressed as a 13-
bit code \u201cword".

\u2022 An 8-bit byte is formed by comparing the sample to a "companding characteristic", which is a non-linear formula.

\u2022 Internationally, a companding characteristic known
as "A-law" is used, intended to provide optimum
signal-to-noise performance over a wide range of
signal levels (see Section 3.2).

\u2022 In North America, encoding is done according to the
\u201c\u00b5-law\u201d.
\u2022 These 8-bit words occur 8000 times per second for
the 64 kbit/s digital bit stream. See Figure 2.
3.2 A-Law Coding (ITU-T G.711)

This is a method used for amplitude compression
(companding) that allows higher resolution for lower
level signals and lower resolution to high power signals.
This helps to assure the quality of the PCM-encoded
signal (regardless of the speaker\u2019s voice level), by
increasing the signal-to-noise ratio. Basically the voice
is sampled at 8000 samples per second and converted
into a 13-bit word that goes into the compander. The
samples are processed using a non-linear formula to
transform them into 8-bit words. The compander also
inverts all even bits in the word - i.e.1111111111111 is
converted to11111111 (+127) using compression,
resulting in the PCM word 10101010 (AAh).

E3
140 Mbit/s
E3
E3
E3
x4

E2 E2 E2

E2
x4

E1 E1 E1

E1
E1
2.048 Mbit/s
nx64 kbit/s
E2
8.448 Mbit/s
E3
34.368 Mbit/s
E4
139.264 Mbit/s
x4

Channel 00 Channel 01 Channel 02

Channel n
x4
MUX
MUX
MUX
MUX
Figure 2 Converting a voice signal (Pulse Code Modulation, PCM)
Figure 1 PDH hierarchy
Voice (Analog) Signal
64 kbit/s PCM
bit stream
Sampled Analog Signal
1111111111111
10101010
Quantization
(13 Bit)
A-law Compander
(8 Bit)
3
\u00a9 2001 Sunrise Telecom Incorporated
Introduction to E1/2.048 Mbit/s
4 PULSES

The quality of the E1 pulse is
an important factor in clear
transmission.

\u2022 The ITU-T G.703 standard
defines the max and min
values in the form of a
mask. A good pulse shape
must fit inside this mask.
Refer to Figure 3.

\u2022 See Table 1 for the specifi-
cations for an E1 pulse, as
specified in ITU-T G.703,

Table 6.
The 2.048 Mbit/s stream is the
basic building block for the
transmission of signals in the
PCM digital hierarchy. Proper
internetworking of equipment
along that signal path requires
strict compliance with various
standards such as ITU-T G.703, G.704 and so on.

Output signals from such network elements (NE)
as multiplexers, regenerators, switches and PBX
must be within the defined limits. The input
circuitry of the network elements must, further,
be able to compensate for any attenuation or
distortion caused by the transmission media.
Then the logic 1s and 0s will be detected cor-
rectly; otherwise, bit/code errors will result.

A portable test instrument can be a useful tool to
check the overall health of the transmission
system and assist in locating the source of
problems or defects. At the physical layer, the
parameters of interest are bit rate (and its
stability), jitter, wander, level, noise, code errors,
and pulse shape distortion. A key test in this area
is verification that the signal pulse shape
conforms to the ITU-T G.703 recommendation, as
illustrated in Figure 3.

The Importance of Pulse Shape
Measurement

A G.703-compliant pulse-shaped 2 Mbit/s signal,
when transported via metallic cable of correct imped-
ance and prescribed length, will not distort beyond the
design limits of the receive ports of the NEs. Other-
wise, the resultant errors will lead to degraded service
to customers and unnecessary repair costs for service
providers (such as PTTs).

Pulse Shape
(nominally rectangular)
Ratio of the widths of positive & negative
pulses at the normal half amplitude
Maximum peak-to-peak jitter at an ouput
port
Ratio of the amplitudes of positive & negative
pulses at the center of the pulse interval
Nominal pulse width

244 ns
0.95 to 1.05
0.95 to 1.05
Refer to section 2 of Recommendation G.823

Peak voltage of a space (no pulse)
Nominal peak voltage of a mark (pulse)
Test load impedance
74 ohms resistive
120 ohms resistive
2.37 V
3V
0+/-0.237 V
0+/-0.3 V
Pair(s) in each direction
One coaxial pair
(see G.703, 9.4)
One symmetrical pair
(see G.703, 9.4)

All marks of a valid signal must conform with the mask
(see Figure 15/G.703) irrespective of the sign. The value
V corresponds to the nominal peak value.

Table 1 ITU-T G.703/Table 6, 2.048 Mbit/s Pulse Mask specifications
Nominal pulse
10%10%
10%
10%10%
10%
20%
20%20%
269 ns
194 ns
244 ns
219 ns
488 ns
(244+25)
(244-50)
(244-25)
(244+244)
V = 100%
50%
0%
Figure 3 Mask of the pulse at 2.048 Mbps interface

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