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Glossary of Video Terms

Glossary of Video Terms

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Published by: api-3738209 on Oct 15, 2008
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Glossary of video terms
Page 1
09/11/2004 07:50:55 AM
Glossary of video terms.
[Numbers in brackets refer to chapter where the definition appears in TODAY'S VIDEO]
24 bit color --- Computer graphics system where each pixel can have 256 levels of red, 256 levels of green,
and 256 levels of blue simultaneously, allowing each pixel to be any of over 16+ million colors (256x256x256).
3/4U--- Aging industrial videocassette format. Uses 3/4-inch tape in cassettes. [5]
3/4U-SP--- Superior performance version of 3/4U, totally compatible with it. [5]
3-D modeling--- Electronic graphics technique or software that allows one to designate points in three dimensional

space, connect those points, cover the resulting wireframe with a selected material, then move or rotate the object, showing it from various angles. Objects can be combined and allowed to reflect or cast shadows upon each other and/or their backgrounds. [12]

3-to-1 rule--- Position mikes at least 3 times farther from each other than they are from the people speaking into
them. [10]
8 bit color--- A picture's colors are selected from a palette of 256 colors in a color lookup table. Only 256 colors are
available in a single picture. [12]
8mm--- Eight millimeter. Nearly 1/4-inch wide tape used in popular lightweight home camcorders. This is also the
width of home movie film which is also called 8mm. [5]
8-pin--- Rectangular plug with eight pins and a cable that goes with it used to carry audio, video, and other signals
between a monitor/receiver and a videocassette recorder.[2]
A/B roll--- Technique of placing one scene on one video tape (and VTP) and another scene on another and then
rolling (playing) both VTPs together, along with the editing VTR, in order to fade, dissolve or do a special effect using
both scenes at once. [14]
A/B switch--- Electrical switch which selects either the signal from cable A or the signal from cable B and feeds the
results to a TV, VCR, or other destination. [5]
A/B/C roll--- An edit employing 3 video players where the image comes from player A, then through some special
effect transitions to B, and then to C. [14]
Above-the-line costs--- Production expenses related only to a particular show. Examples: special talent, writers,
travel, charges for special effects. [17]
AC adaptor--- Device that connects to a wall outlet (AC), and sends power to a device to: charge its batteries, or
operate without using battery power. [5]
AC--- Alternating Current, which comes from the wall outlet (not DC---Direct Current---which comes from a battery).
Access channel--- Cable TV channel set aside for local community use, like town meetings, school sports, local
affairs, and news. [4]
Accession number--- Numerical order (1, 2, 3, etc.) assigned to tapes as they are acquired or recorded. [5]
Glossary of video terms
Page 2
09/11/2004 07:50:55 AM
Accessory mount--- Threaded hole on top of camera or camcorder for attaching a light, microphone, or other
accessory. [6]
Achromatic--- Ability of a high quality lens to not make colored ridges on contrasty objects in the edges of the
picture. [7]
Active--- Electrical device which requires electric power to operate. TV antenna preamplifiers and amplified TV
couplers are active. [3]
Active--- Electronic device that requires power to operate and adds something to the signal passing through it. [11]
Active matrix--- A type of liquid crystal that changes quickly, appropriate for LCD panels that also display video. [19]

AD--- Audio Director, person who runs the sound. [17]
Adapter--- A connector which allows one type of plug to fit into another type of socket. [2]
Adapter--- An audio device that allows a plug of one type to fit a socket of another type. [10]
Addressable--- A cable or satellite decoder that has a unique identity. The box can descramble a channel for a

limited time if a "permission" signal is sent to it, usually through the cable or airwaves after the subscriber pledges to
pay the fee. [4]
Adjacent channel interference--- Wavy lines or two TV images simultaneously appear on the TV screen. A problem
appears when you're viewing a weak station while another strong station, one channel number higher or lower, is
broadcast nearby or from the same direction as the weak station. [3]
ADSL--- Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line, a DSL that sends data quickly downstream (to you) but upstream slowly,
allocating the digital resources of the twisted pair efficiently for many download-heavy applications. [20]
Advanced vertical--- Special synchronizing signal sent out by a TBC to a VCP to lock the VCP's video playback to
the house (TV system's) sync. Makes the VCP play almost in synchronization with the studio cameras. [15]
AFC time constant--- An internal circuit design on a TV set which determines how much it jitters and flagwaves
when playing tapes. [5]
AFM--- Audio Frequency Modulation, a technique used in VHS, SVHS, 8mm and Hi 8 VCRs to record/play hi fi
sound, invisibly imbedded in the picture. [5]
AFM or audio frequency modulation--- Method of recording hi-fi audio on 8mm and hi8 tapes along with the video.
The audio is changed to a varying tone whose vibrations are mixed invisibly with the video vibrations. [10]
AGC or automatic gain control--- Automatically adjusts the brightness and contrast of a camera's picture. [6]
Air mouse--- Infra-red remote control mouse that allows one to operate a computer from some distance away. [19]
Alias--- Stair-steppiness of rounded images or letters rendered by computers and character generators. [12]
All-channel antenna--- Antenna designed to tune in all TV channels. [3]
Alpha channel--- A signal used in video graphics to cut a hole in an image, a hole that gets filled with another image.
Glossary of video terms
Page 3
09/11/2004 07:50:55 AM
Alpha channel--- External key circuit in a CG or computer graphics device that "cuts out" a piece of a picture leaving
space for another (usually text). [12]
Ambiance or ambient lighting--- Light that partially fills in shadows, mimicking the light that scatters from everything
in the real world. Without ambiance lighting, shadows could get too dark. [12]
Ambient color--- The shaded color of an object showing darker color where light doesn't hit. [12]
Amortization--- Splitting up the cost of an expensive item over the number of years the item is used. [17]
Amp or ampere--- A measure of the volume of electrical current. Institutional circuits are usually rated for 20A
(amps). Electric wires may get hot as this number is approached. [9]
Amplifier--- Electronic device that makes a weak electrical signal stronger. [10]
Analog--- A signal that varies continuously as opposed to a digital signal made of discrete levels. A device that
works with analog signals. [1]
Analog non-linear editor--- NLE that doesn't digitize your tapes and prepare a final edit from the hard drives, but
creates an edit decision list from the timeline on your computer screen. The list later drives the VCPs and VCRs to
make the edits. [14]
Analog--- Something that varies in infinite gradations. A light dimmer is analog. Analog circuits suffer noise and
distortion. [10]
Analog VTR--- Video recorder that records the continuously varying video signal onto the tape (as opposed to
digital). [5]
Analog-to-digital (A-to-D) converter--- A circuit that samples an analog signal and expresses the information as
digital data. [5]
Animation--- Technique or result of creating a series of still images and then playing them quickly in sequence to
create motion. [12]
ANSI--- American National Standards Institute, an organization that, among other things, sets the standards for
measuring projector brightness. [19]
Antenna booster--- Amplifier, attached to antenna wire, used to strengthen a weak antenna signal. [2]
Antenna joiner--- Electrical device which connects to two or more TV antennas and sends the combined signals to
your TV set. [3]
Antenna preamplifier--- An electrical device usually connected near the antenna which makes a weak antenna
signal stronger. [3]
Antenna switch--- An electrical switch specially designed for antenna signals.[3]
Antenna switch--- Selects whether a TV's internal (monopole or rabbit-ear) antenna or external (rooftop) antenna is
to be used. [2]
Anti flicker switch or flicker fixer--- Feature on a scan converter that makes fine lines in computer graphics fuzzier
so that they don't flicker when displayed as interlaced video. [19]
Anti-alias--- The smoothing out of jagged or stair-steppy edges of electronic graphics or generated characters. [12]

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