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ENGLISH (Précis & Composition)

ENGLISH (Précis & Composition)

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EXAMINATION 1981ENGLISH (Précis & Composition)Time allowed: 3 hours Maximum marks: 1001. Write a Précis of the following passage and suggest a suitable title: - 20 An important part of management is the making of rules. As a means of regulating thefunctioning of an organisation so that most routine matters are resolved without referring eachissue to the manager they are an essential contribution to efficiency. The mere presence of carefully considered rules has the double-edged advantage of enabling workers to know how far they can go, what is expected of them and what channels of action to adopt on the one side, and,on the other, of preventing the management from the behaving in a capricious manner. The bodyof rules fixed by the company for itself acts as its constitution, which is binding both onemployees and employers, however, it must be remembered that rules are made for people, not people for rules. If conditions and needs change rules ought to change with them. Nothing issadder than the mindless application of rules which are out-date and irrelevant. An organisationsuffers from mediocrity if it is too rule-bound. People working in will do the minimum possible.It is called “working to rule or just doing enough to ensure that rules are not broken. But thisreally represents the lowest level of the employer/employee relationship and an organisationafflicted by this is in an unhappy condition indeed. Another important point in rule-making is toensure that they are rules which can be followed. Some rules are so absurd that althougheveryone pays lip-service to them, no one really bothers to follow them. Often the managementknows this but can do nothing about it. The danger of this is, if a level of disrespect for one ruleis created this might lead to an attitude of disrespect for all rules. One should take it for grantedthat nobody likes rules, nobody wants to be restricted by them, and, given a chance, riots peoplewill try and break them. Rules which cannot be followed are not only pointless, they are actuallydamaging to the structure of theorganization.2. Critically examine the following passage: 20Some societies have experimented with eliminating the middleman. Prices can certainly becontrolled better if the government acts as the middleman, because, after all, goods have to belifted and transported to the other parts of the country. But governments are not usually veryefficient or quick in these matters. Nor are they economical — a lot of file-and-paperwork involving a lot of people adds up to a lot of indirect expense. Although in theory it ought to be possible to reduce prices by eliminating the middleman, in practice it seems to be an essentialevil.Business can be left to find its own level in accordance with the so-called ‘laws’ of supplyand demand. By and large, Pakistan is what is called a ‘sellers’ market because essential goodsare usually in short supply or are inclined to fall below the needs of an overgrowing population.Market manipulation in such a situation is easy and unfortunately fairly common. Goods usuallydisappear at about the time they are needed most, leading to price spirals and malpractices. Pricecontrol under such circumstances becomes a little unrealistic unless a huge department can be setup with vigilance terms and inspectors empowered to raid shops and warehouses. The efforts tocontrol a seller’s market is so great and the costs so high that in fact not a great deal of ôontrolcan be exercised. And alternative method is to encourage the growth of buyer’s market in whichthe customer has a choice between many competing products. Competition automatically-forcesgood quality and low prices on the goods. This is at present only possible in the high productionareas of the world. But competition leads to malpractices of a different kind. Survival for a business often depends upon the destruction of competing business and big companies have anatural advantage over small ones. An obsessive drive to ‘sell’ is generated in such a system.Huge sums are spent on advertising, the costs of which are transferred to the buyer. People aretricked and badgered into buying things they do not really need.3. a) Use any five of the following pairs of words in your own sentences so as to bring out their 
 
meanings: -i) Canvas, canvass, ii) Cast, caste,iii) appraise, apprise iv) allusion, illusionv) continual, continuous vi) berth, birthvu) apposite, opposite viii) artist, artisteix) adapt, adopt. b) Use any five of the following expressions in sentences so as to bring out their meaning: 10i) to have your cake and eat it too,ii) between the devil and the deep blue sea,iii) to be in hot water,iv) to be on the carpet,v) it never rains but it pours,vi) a miss is as good as a mile,vii) to give oneself airs,viii) to have the courage of one’s convictions,ix) the onlooker sees most of the game, -x) out of sight out of mind.4. Write a paragraph on any one of the following topics:a) The authoritarian society. b) Civilized dissent is necessary for social progress.c) Life is a tragedy for those who feel and a comedy for those who think.d) Eventually all human action must be judged by its moral content.e) Those who can, do, those who can’t teach.5. Write a paragraph on one of the following topics: 20a) What we-call progress is largely delusory. b) Speak no evil, hear no evil, see no evil.c) Render unto Caeser that which is Caescr’s, and unto God that which is God’s.d) A man’s personality, morality, intellect and attitudes are all the product of his bodilychemistry.e) All the world’s a stage.EXAMINATION 1982
 
ENGLISH (Précis & Composition)Time allowed: 3 hours Maximum marks: 1001. Write a Précis of the following passage in about 100 words and suggest a title: 20 Objectives pursued by, organisations should be directed to the satisfaction of demandsresulting from the wants of mankind. Therefore, the determination of appropriate objectives for organised activity must be preceded by an effort to determine precisely what their wants are.Industrial organisations conduct market studies to learn what consumer goods should be produced. City Commissions make surveys to ascertain what civic projects would be of most benefit. Highway Commissions conduct traffic counts to learn what constructive programmesshould be undertaken. Organisations come into being as a means for creating and exchangingutility. Their success is dependent upon the appropriateness of the series of acts contributed tothe system. The majority of these acts is purposeful, that is, they are directed to theaccomplishment of some objective. These acts are physical in nature and find purposefulemployment in the alteration of the physical environment. As a result utility is created, which,through the process of distribution, makes it possible for the cooperative system to endure.Before the Industrial Revolution most cooperative activity was accomplished in smallowner-managed enterprises, usually with a single decision maker and simple organisationalobjectives. Increased technology and the growth of industrial organisations made necessary theestablishment of a hierarchy of objectives. This, in turn, required a divison of the management,function until today a hierarchy of decision maker exists in most organisations..The effective pursuit of appropriate objectives contributes directly the organisationalefficiency. As used here, efficiency is a measure of the want satisfying power of the cooperativesystem as a whole. Thus efficiency is the summation of utilities received from the organisationdivided by the utilities given to the organisation, as subjectively evaluated by each contributor.The function of the management process is the delineation of organisational objectives andthe coordination of activity towards the accomplishment of these objectives. The system of coordinated activities must be maintained sothateach contributor, including the manager, gainsmore than he contributes.2. Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow:After a situation has been carefully analysed and the possible outcomes have been evaluatedas accurately as possible, a decision can be made. This decision may include the alternative of not making a decision on the alternatives presented. After all the data that can be brought to bear on a situation has been considered, some areas of uncertainty may be expected to remain. If adecision is to be made, these areas of uncertainty must be bridged by the consideration andevaluation of intangibles. Some call the type of evaluation involved in the consideration of intangibles, intuition, others call it hunch on judgement, whatever it be called, it is inescapabletat this type of thinking must always be the final part in arriving at a decision about the future.There is no other way if action is to be taken. There appears to be a marked difference in people’s abilities to come to sound conclusions, when some facts relative to a situation aremissing, those who possess sound judgement, are richly rewarded.But as effective as as intuition, hunch on judgement may some times be, this type of thinkingshould be reserved for those areas where facts on which to base a decision, are missing.a) How is it possible to come to a sound decision when facts are missing? b) What part in your opinion. does decision making play in the efficient functioning of anorganisation.OR Bring out the implications of the following observation. Traveller, there is no path: paths are made by walking.3. Make sentences to illustrate the meaning of any five of the following:i) To come to a dead end.ii) To turn a deafer iii) Every dark cloud has a silver liningiv) Blowing hot and cold together 

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