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Philosophy Paper- i

Philosophy Paper- i

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Published by: api-3731661 on Oct 15, 2008
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NOTE: Attempt FIVE questions in all, including Question No.8 which is Compulsory. All questions
carry equal marks.

1. What benefits are to be achieved from the study of logic? Discuss.
2. What is meant by explanation? Differentiate between scientific and nonscientific explanation.
3. What is Inductive Analogy? On what factors does the strength of Inductive Analogy depend?
4. The birth of Islam is the birth of Inductive Intellect. Discuss with reference to Iqbal.
5. Define hypothesis. How are scientific hypothesis evaluated?
6. Write a comprehensive note on the various kinds of definition.
7. Briefly discuss the following:
i) Differentiate between Induction and deduction.
ii) Traditional square of opposition.
iii) Rues for valid syllogism.
iv) Ad. hominem (abusive and circumstantial).
8. Write only the correct answers in the Answer Book. Don\u2019t reproduce the questions.
(A) Choose the Correct for the following syllogism:

1) AAA-2
(a) Valid (b) illicit major

(c) illicit minor (d) undistributed middle
2) EAE1-1
(a) Valid (b) illicit major

(c) illicit minor (d) undistributed middle
3) AEO-3
(a) Invalid (b) valid when M exists (c) valid when S exists (d) valid when P exists
4) AAI-3
(a) Invalid (b) valid when M exists (c) valid when S exists (d) valid when P exists
5) No coal tar derivatives are nourishing foods, since no coal tar derivatives are natural grain products,
and all natural grain products are nourishing foods.
(a) Valid (b) illicit major

(c) illicit minor (d) undistributed middle
(B) Determine the validity of the following with the help of rules:
6) She can have many friends only if she respects them as individuals. If she respects them as individuals,

then she cannot expect them all to behave alike. She does have many friends. Therefore she does not
expect them all to behave alike.
7) Either the manager didn\u2019t notice the change or else he approves of it. He notices it all right. So he must

approve of it.
(C) Identify the form and discuss the validity or invalidity of each of the following arguments:
8) Either he lives in Quetta or in Islamabad. He lives in Quetta. So, he does not live in Islamabad.
9) If it was your business, I would have invited you. It is not, and so I did not.
10) Either wealth is an evil or wealth is a good: but wealth is not an evil: therefore wealth is a good.
(D) Identify the fallacies if any:
11) All of us cannot be famous, because all of us cannot be well known.
12) Time heals all wounds. Time is money. Therefore money heals all wounds.
13) Of course Karl Marx must have been mistaken in maintaining that capitalism is an evil form of

economic and social organization. Why, he was a miserable failure of a man who couldn\u2019t earn enough

money to support his family.
14) My opinions are right, because I will imprison anyone who disagrees with me.
15) Dogs are frequently encountered in the streets. Afghan Hounds are dogs. Therefore Afghan Hounds

are frequently encountered in the streets.
(E) Write true of false:
16) If ALL MEN ARE ANIMALS is false, then NO MEN ARE ANIMALS is true.
17) An argument is valid when it is impossible for the premises to be false and conclusion true.
(F) Fill in the blanks:
18) The symbol to be defined is known as__________
19)__________ is a process in which one proposition is arrived at and affirmed on the basis of certain


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