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Religious Wars Notes

Religious Wars Notes

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Published by msG77

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Published by: msG77 on Oct 15, 2008
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06/16/2009

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Reformation + Politics = Religious Wars
Four Phaseso Frencho Spanish & Dutcho English & Spanisho Thirty Years’ War 
Religious tolerance only where rulers put politics ahead of religion
Calvinists vs. Catholics
Protestant-Catholic clash rejuvenated by the Counter Reformation
Doctrinal and aesthetic differences o Calvinists for local authority, Catholic’s for central authority, religion and politics o Calvinists like it simple & plain (Wren), Catholics like elaborate and ornate (Baroque) o 1559- Hapsburg-Valois Wars end, internal conflict starts with death of Henry II...
The French Conflict begins
Catholic Guises & Huguenot Bourbons fight for control
Many powerful French resist Guise monarchy by joining Huguenots (2/5 of arist.)
Conde & Coligny provide military guidance to Huguenots
1560- Francis II dies (Charles IX), Catherine de Medicis attempts toleration
Catherine wants a Catholic France but fears Guise power 1562- Guise massacre Protestants at Vassy
 begins the French wars of religion (Huguenots vs. the Catholic League)
3 separate short conflicts
Coligny wants Charles IX to invade Netherlands to help Protestant Cause
Cath. joins Guise attempt on Coligny
Tells king Huguenots are attempting a coup: Protestant leaders must die
St. Bartholemew’s Day Massacre
3,000 Huguenots are killed in Paris
20,000 more w/in next few days
Gregory XIII & Phillip II cheer (French out of Netherlands)
Protestants React
Protestants think this is a “fight to the death”
forget “obedience to worldly authority”
John Knox is leading voice in Calvinist resistance
Hotman, Beza, & du Plessis Mornay write works extremely critical of tyrannical monarchs and in favor of resistance
Henry III succeeds Charles IX
seeks middle ground with help of politiques (Peace of Beaulieu in 1576)
1577, Catholic League forces him back into the fight
Huguenots led by Henry of Navarre (Henry III’s brother-in-law)
CL controls Paris—mid-1580s
1588-Henry III has duke & cardinal of Guise family killed, hooks up with Navarre
Catholic League kills mass Huguenots and...
Navarre: Henry IV, Anyone?
Henry III joins forces with Henry of Navarre (1589), but is assassinated
Henry of Navarre becomes Henry IV, Pope Sixtus V and Phillip II freak out
Spain hops in to help Catholic League
Henry IV embraces Catholicism, provides tolerance with…
 Ref + Pol = Rel Wars1
 
Edict of Nantes
Edict grantso assembleo go to universities and public placeso fortify townso Huguenots are free to worship
Catholc League breaks up
Henry IV sets stage for absolutism of Louis XIV by rebuilding France
The Dutch Revolt
The Netherlands (wealthy & valuable) is under Hapburgs control
Charles V is also Duke of Burgundy was born and and raised in Ghent o He was “German” like his countrymen o ButCharles retires in 1555 and places his son Philip on throne of Spain o also Duke of Burgundy o The Spanish Philip IIhas no tolerance for the Germanic Dutch
independent towns, increasingly Calvinist in the mid-1500s o Distrust his fanatical Catholicismo Note “Bloody Mary’s” persecution of Protestants in England
Philip II is at height of power
controls the Mediterranean, efficient bureaucracy, global empire
he needs the Netherlands
Dutch are major purchasers of Spanish wool
Dutch ports a source of wealth and staging point for invasion of EnglandPhilip Blunders into war with the Dutch
1561- Cardinal Granvelle sent in to centralize the Church and gov’t
Wm. of Orange leads resistance, unrest grows
Granvelle removed, aristocratic control fails
1567- Philip II sends troops & Duke of Alba to collect taxes and wipe out Protestants (enforcing the Council of Trent)
Alba- executes thousands, nobles are “beggars”, brute force doesn’t work 
William of Orange Returns from Exile
Spanish win battles, Dutch hang in with piracy, guerilla tactics & English help
Violence grows worse, Calv. ministers encourage killing of Spaniards, leading Prots are tortured & executed
Spanish Fury (1576) lower 10 + upper 7 provinces (Pacification of Ghent)
United Neth. is tough, Spanish withdraw in 1577
Prince of Parma cuts a deal o Gives lower ten desired Catholic reformso 1579- Sp. regains control in south (Spanish Netherlands, later modern day Belgium) fear of Calvinistextremistso Treaty of Arras - south out of revolt
Northern Provinces fight on
1579- Union of Utrecht, can’t agree on ruler 
Spain keeps trying to regain control, Phillip also busy with France & England (overextended)
Orange is assassinated in 1584 - son takes reins
1588- Armada vs. Dutch & English (see Spanish Armada lecture)
Dutch hang on, 1609- twelve years’ truce with Spain
1648 Official peace (Westphalia)
Dutch Republic becomes modern-day Netherlands
The English/Spanish ConflictConflict in England
Will England be Protestant or Catholic?o Jane Greyo Mary I
Mary reverses all Protestant laws, England an RC state, many Protestants flee (Marian exiles)
 Ref + Pol = Rel Wars2
 
After Death of Mary I contest between Catholics & Protestants focuses on succession to throne
Elizabeth faces zealots from both Catholic and Protestant sides
Elizabethan Settlement:o church hierarchy (RCs)o Second Book of Common Prayer and the 39 Articles (Prots)o Anglicans in Puritans
EngIand vs. Spain
 Netherlands staging point
Spain supports Mary, Queen of Scots
England helps Protestants in France & Dutch Republic
Treaty of Nonsuch, 1585
Mary Queen of Scots
great niece of Henry VIII
French (Guise) & Catholic
Queen of Scotland in 1561, keeps her religion
Attacked by John Knox
1568- scandal forces her out
1576- Don Juan + Mary?
Flees to England where she lives under house arrest, starts plotting against Elizabeth (Lord Darnley)
Plots are uncovered (Casket letters) & Elizabeth is forced to have her cousin executed in 1587
Philip II is ticked: The Armada, 1588
English aid to Dutch Republic and execution of Mary Queen of Scots
decides to invade England and put an end to Protestantism there
compilation of ships, escort Parma’s
Pope’s blessing
Sir Francis Drake key “sea dog”
English advantages o Corsairs—small ships o winds and storms
Defeat of the Armada provides inspiration for Protestants everywhere & marks beginning of the end for Spain
Major Outcomes
conflict solidifies England as nation, & desire to be Protestant
weakened Span navy opens sea for English & Dutch
fighting for the Spain’s prosecution of the Counter Revolution leaves it in a bad position for the new, commercialEurope
The Thirty Years’ War
Causes of the Thirty Years’ War 
* religious, constitutional (HRE), international
Protestant Union(1608) & Catholic States (1609)
Ferdinand: restore Hapsburg power and Catholicism
Spain wants the Netherlands back 
France seeks to weaken Hapsburg power (HRE & King of Spain)Phases of War 
Bohemian phase (1618-1625): SpainFerdinand vs. Frederich
Danish phase (1625-1629):Ferdinand (Wallenstein) vs. Denmark (E&N)
Swedish phase (1630-1635)Gustavus wants holdings on the mainland(Saxony)
Swedish-French phase (1635-1648)German states & Spain vs. France & Sweden
 Ref + Pol = Rel Wars3

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