Prepared by: Khurram Tanvir
2.1 Mapping Between HLL and Machine Language
Translating HLL programs to machine language programs is not a one-to-one mapping.A HLL instruction (usually called a statement) will be translated to one or more machinelanguage instructions. The number of mapped machine instructions depends on theefficiency of the compiler in producing optimized machine language programs from theHLL programs. A machine language program produced by a compiler or an assembler.Usually, machine language programs produced by compilers are not efficient (i.e. theycontain many unnecessary instructions that increase processing and slow downexecution).
3. Assembly language
Assembly language is the most basic programming language available for anyprocessor. With assembly language, a programmer works only with operationsimplemented directly on the physical CPU. Assembly language lacks high-levelconveniences such as variables and functions, and it is not portable between variousfamilies of processors. Nevertheless, assembly language is the most powerful computer programming language available, and it gives programmers the insight required to writeeffective code in high-level languages.Machine code for displaying $ sign on lower right corner of screen.10111000, 00000000, 10111000, 10001110, 11011000, 11000110, 00000110,10011110, 00001111, 00100100, 11001101, 00011111The program above, written in assembly language, looks like this:MOV AX, 47104MOV DS, AXMOV , 36INT 32