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Drug Calculations

# Drug Calculations

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03/18/2014

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DOSAGE CALCULATIONS
I. Systems of Measurement with Conversion
A. Metric System
B. Apothecary System
C. Household System
D. Avoirdupois System
Commonly accepted conversions:
_______________________________________________________________________
Metric
Apothecary
Household______________
Solid measures:
1 kg
2.2 lb
454 g
1.0 lb
1 g = 1000 mg
15 gr (gr xv)
60 mg
1 gr (gr i )
30 mg
\u00bd gr (gr ss)
Liquid measures:
1 L = 1000 mL
240 mL
8 f oz (f oz viii)
1c
30 mL
1 f oz ( f oz i)
2 tbsp
15 \u2013 16 mL
4 f dr (f dr iv)
1 tbsp = 3 tsp
8 mL
2 f dr ( f dr ii)
2 tsp
4 \u2013 5 mL
1 f dr (f dr ii)
1 tsp = 60 gtt
1 mL
15 -16 min
0.0 6 mL
1 min ( min i)
II. Calculating Dosage:
I.
Oral Drugs
A. Basic formula:
Desired dose ( D) X V
= Amount to be given (A)
On- hand dose (H)
Ex. Order: amoxicillin 100mg PO qid
Available: amoxicillin 250 mg / 5 mL
D x V =A
100 mg x 5 mL = 2 mL
H
250 mg
B. Ratio & Proportion
H : V= D :x
250 mg : 5 mL = 100 mg : x
250 x = 500
x = 2 mL
C. Fractional Equation (FE)
H= D
V
x
250 mg = 100 mg
5 mL
x
250 mg x = 500 mg/mL
X = 2 mL
2. Parenteral DrugsSame with oral liquids
Ex. Order: oxacillin 250 mg IM q 6H
Available: oxacillin 500 mg vial to be reconstituted with 2.7 mL sterile
water.
D xV =A
H250 mg x 3 mL = 750 mL = 1.5 mL
500 mg
500
3. Intravenous fluids:
Method II: Two - step
1.Amount of solution = mL
2. mL per hour
X
drop factor ( gtt/ mL) = drops/ minute (gtt/ min)
60 minutes
Ex.
Order: 1000 mL of D5LR to infuse over 12 hours
Available: macrodrip set with 10 gtt/ mL & microdrip set with 60 gtt/ mL
1. 1000 mL
= 83.33 mL/h
12 h
2. 83.33 mL/ h
X
60 gtt/mL = 83 gtt/ min
60 minutes
\ue00010% solution =__________grams per mL
5% dextrose in water =