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Course Materails Final

Course Materails Final

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Published by kn.manikandan4293
Manual testing, course meterial, testing notes, software testing notes, testing manual, SDLC, STLC
Manual testing, course meterial, testing notes, software testing notes, testing manual, SDLC, STLC

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Published by: kn.manikandan4293 on Oct 15, 2008
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05/21/2013

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CONTENTS

1.1 Evolution of Software Testing..............................................................................................................7 1.2 What is Software Testing?....................................................................................................................7 1.3 Goals of Testing. ...................................................................................................................................7 1.4 Advantages of Testing...........................................................................................................................7 2.1 Introduction to Software process...........................................................................................................9 3.1 CAPABILITY MATURITY MODEL (CMM)SM...............................................................................13 3.2 COMPONENTS OF CMM.................................................................................................................13

3.3 CMM FRAMEWORK.......................................................................................................................14

3.4 KEY PROCESS AREAS (KPAs).......................................................................................................18
3.4.1 GOALS.........................................................................................................................................20
4.1 What is ISO?.......................................................................................................................................26
4.2 What is the ISO Process Approach?....................................................................................................26
What are the ISO Elements?.............................................................................................................27
4,3 ISO Benefits........................................................................................................................................28
4.4 ISO Costs.............................................................................................................................................28
4.5 ISO Modules........................................................................................................................................29
4.5.1 General: ISO 9001........................................................................................................................29
4.5.2 Environmental: ISO 14001...........................................................................................................29
4.5.3 Automotive: ISO/TS 16949..........................................................................................................30
4.5.4 Calibration and Testing labs: ISO 17025.....................................................................................30
5. 1 Description.........................................................................................................................................32
5.2 Use.......................................................................................................................................................32
5.3Examples..............................................................................................................................................33
5.3.1Personal Improvement...................................................................................................................33
5.3.2 Improving Patient Compliance in Personal Health Maintenance................................................34
5.3.3 Student Section: Improving Your History-Taking Skills............................................................35
5.3.4 Clinician Section: Improving Your Office..................................................................................36
6.1 Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC)........................................................................................39
6.2 Waterfall Model..................................................................................................................................39
6.3 Prototyping Model...............................................................................................................................42
6.4 Incremental Model..............................................................................................................................43
6.5 Spiral Model........................................................................................................................................44
7.1 What is Quality?..................................................................................................................................47
7.2 How do I manage Quality?..................................................................................................................47
7.3 Definitions of Quality..........................................................................................................................48
7.4 Why does quality matter?....................................................................................................................48
7.5 Why is quality important?...................................................................................................................49
7.6 Quality management and software development................................................................................50
7.7 Quality planning..................................................................................................................................50

7.8Quality attributes..................................................................................................................................51 7.9 What is a quality assurance system?...................................................................................................51 7.10 Quality control...................................................................................................................................52 7.11 Difference between QA & QC..........................................................................................................52 7.12 QA Activity.......................................................................................................................................53

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8.1 V & V..................................................................................................................................................55
8.1.1Verification:...................................................................................................................................55
8.1.2 Verification Techniques...............................................................................................................55
8.2 Validation:...........................................................................................................................................55
8.2.1 Validation Techniques..................................................................................................................55
9.1 Phases of Testing Life cycle................................................................................................................58
10.1`Methods of Testing...........................................................................................................................60
10.1.1Functional or Black Box testing..................................................................................................60
10.1.2 Logical or White box Testing. ................................................................................................60
11 White Box Testing...............................................................................................................................62
11.1 The purpose of white box testing..................................................................................................62
11.2 Types of testing under White/Glass Box Testing Strategy:..........................................................62
11.2.1 Unit Testing:...............................................................................................................................62
11.2.1.1Statement Coverage:.............................................................................................................63
11.2.2 Branch Coverage:.......................................................................................................................63
11.2.3 Security Testing:.........................................................................................................................63
11.2.4 Mutation Testing:.......................................................................................................................63
11.2.5 Basis Path Testing......................................................................................................................63
11.2.6 Flow Graphs...............................................................................................................................63

11.2.7 Cyclomatic Complexity.............................................................................................................65

11.2.8 Deriving Test Cases....................................................................................................................65
11.2.9 Graphical Matrices.....................................................................................................................65
11.2.10 Graph Matrix............................................................................................................................66
11.2.11 Control Structure Testing.........................................................................................................66
11.2.12 Condition Testing.....................................................................................................................67
11.2.13 Loop Testing.............................................................................................................................67
11.2.13.1 Simple loops:.....................................................................................................................67
11.2.13.2 Nested Loop......................................................................................................................68
11.2.13.3 Concatenated loops:..........................................................................................................68
11.3 Advantages of White box testing:.....................................................................................................70
11.4 Disadvantages of white box testing:..................................................................................................70
12.1 Black Box Testing:............................................................................................................................72
12.2 Testing Strategies/Techniques...........................................................................................................72
12.3 Advantages of Black Box Testing.....................................................................................................73
12.4 Disadvantages of Black Box Testing................................................................................................73
13.1 Levels of testing................................................................................................................................75
13.1.1 Unit Testing................................................................................................................................75
13.1.2 Integration testing.......................................................................................................................81
13.1.2.1 Different Approach of Testing............................................................................................82
13.1.3 System Testing:..........................................................................................................................86
13.1.3. 1 Testing................................................................................................................................86
13.1.3. 2 Compatibility Testing.........................................................................................................86
13.1.3. 3 Recovery Testing................................................................................................................86
13.1.3. 4 Usability Testing:...............................................................................................................87
13.1.3. 5 Exploratory Testing:...........................................................................................................87
13.1.3. 6 Ad-hoc Testing:..................................................................................................................87
13.1.3. 7 Stress Testing:....................................................................................................................87
13.1.3. 8 Volume Testing:.................................................................................................................87

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13.1.3. 9 Load Testing:......................................................................................................................87
13.1.3. 10 Regression testing.............................................................................................................87
13.1.4 Acceptance Testing....................................................................................................................89
13.1.4.1 User Acceptance Testing:....................................................................................................90
14.1 TEST PLAN......................................................................................................................................92
14.2 Purpose of Software Test Plan:.........................................................................................................92
14.3 Advantages of test plan.....................................................................................................................92
14.4 Process of the Software Test Plan.....................................................................................................93
14.5 Test plan template.............................................................................................................................93
14. 5.1 Test plan identifier.....................................................................................................................94
14. 5.2 References.................................................................................................................................94
14. 5.3 Objective of the plan.................................................................................................................94
14. 5.4 Test items (functions)................................................................................................................94
14. 5.5 Software risk issues...................................................................................................................94
14. 5.6 Features to be tested..................................................................................................................95
14. 5.7 Features not to be tested............................................................................................................95
14. 5.8 Approach (strategy)...................................................................................................................95
14. 5.9 .Item pass/fail criteria................................................................................................................96
14. 5.10 Entry & exit criteria.................................................................................................................96
14. 5.10 .a Entrance Criteria..............................................................................................................96
14. 5.10 .b Exit Criteria.....................................................................................................................97
14. 5.11 Suspension Criteria and Resumption Requirements:..............................................................97
14. 5.12 Risks and Contingencies.........................................................................................................97
15.1 Test Case Template.........................................................................................................................102
15.2 Test Case Design Techniques..........................................................................................................103
15.2.1 Equivalence Class Partitioning.................................................................................................103
15.2.2 Boundary value analysis:..........................................................................................................104
15.2.3 Cause-Effect Graphing.............................................................................................................106
15.2.4 State- Transtition......................................................................................................................107
15. 3 Sample Test Cases..........................................................................................................................109
Test execution..................................................................................................................................111
16.1 Test execution..................................................................................................................................112
16. 2 When to stop testing?.....................................................................................................................112
16. 3 Defect.............................................................................................................................................112
16.3.1 Defect Fundamental.................................................................................................................112
16.4 Report a Bug....................................................................................................................................113
16.4.1 Template to add a Bug..............................................................................................................114
16.4.2 - Contents of a Bug report........................................................................................................115
16.5 Defect Severity................................................................................................................................116
16.5.1 Critical......................................................................................................................................116
16.5.2 Major........................................................................................................................................116
16.5.3 Average....................................................................................................................................117
16.5.4Minor.........................................................................................................................................117
16.5.5 Exception..................................................................................................................................117
16.6 Defects Prioritized.......................................................................................................................117
16.6 .1 Urgent......................................................................................................................................117
16.6 .2 High.........................................................................................................................................118
16.6 .3 Medium...................................................................................................................................118

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