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In 1884 Lewis Waterman, a New York insurance agent, patented the first practical fountain pen containing its own ink reservoir. Waterman invented a mechanism that fed ink to the pen point by capillary action, allowing ink to flow evenly while writing. By the 1920s the fountain pen was the chief writing instrument in the West and remained so until the introduction of the ballpoint pen after World War II. Fountain pens ink is not so thick in fountain pens there is facility to fill the ink simple by pressing the rubber weasel.
As early as the 19th century, attempts had been made to manufacture a pen with a rolling ball tip, but not until 1938 did the Hungarian brothers Georg and Ladislao Biro invent a practical ballpoint pen. Its success was based upon a viscous, oil-based ink. Early ballpoint pens did not write well; they tended to skip, and the slow-drying oil-based ink smudged easily. But the ballpoint pen had several advantages over the fountain pen: The ink was waterproof and almost unerasable; the pen could write on many kinds of surfaces and could be held in almost any position for writing, and the pressure required to feed the ink was ideal for making carbon copies. Ink formulas were improved for smoother flow and faster drying, and soon the ballpoint replaced the fountain pen as the universal writing tool
Every body is known that pen is useless without ink means; riffle that used in pen is important past of pen. That plays important role in writing on paper. A riffle consists of following things:-
A thin plastic pipe fills with ink. One end of pipe has a nib through which little bit of ink passes. A nib has little iron ball that is actually fixed at the front of nib. While writing with pen inks flow is toward the nib due to the force. An ink passes through the nib. A pen nib is split at the tip to provide a narrow capillary and the ink drawn up to the point continuously.
Ink rises in pens due to the capillary action, as the tip of the nip is split to act as capillary tube.The phenomenon of rise or fall of a liquid in a capillary tube is called capillarity or capillary action. A capillary is a tube of very fine bore. Ball pen have thick liquid ink does not matter which color.
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