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Sound Amplification

Sound Amplification

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Published by: api-3703711 on Oct 15, 2008
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06/05/2014

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Sound amplification
Amplifier is a electronic device which is used to amplify a weak signal. The weak signal
may current, voltage or power.

Basically a transistor is used as an amplifier. In case of Common base (CB) transistor as an amplifier, there is no phase difference between input and output. In case of common Emitted (CE) transistor as a phase difference of 1800 between input and output.

In amplifier, numbers of stages are cascaded to amplify a weak
signal to a sufficient level to operate the output device like loudspeaker. In such amplifier,
the function of the first few stages is the only to amplify voltage. But the last stage is
designed to provide maximum power to drive the output device. The final stage is known
as power amplifier stage.

In a multistage **audio amplifier, the first few stages are of voltage amplifier and final
stage is the power amplifier

See the figure 2, when a person speaks into a microphone, it converts the sound waves
into electrical signal. The electric signal so produced is of very low voltage (a few mV).
If this signal is fed directly to the speaker, it will not be in position to drive the speaker.
Therefore, voltage level of the signal is the first raised to sufficient level (a few Volts) by
passing it through a number of stages of voltage amplifier.
This amplified voltage signal is then fed to the final stage of the multistage amplifier,
which is capable to deliver the required power to drive the speaker. The speaker finally
converts the electrical signal into sound waves.

Thus, a large audience will be in position to hear the speech (or
music from * stereo, orchestra, tape recorder, record player). Thus, it is seen that at the
final stage we have to apply a power amplifier to transfer maximum power to the output
device.

Voltage Amplifiers: The primary function of a voltage amplifier is to raise the

voltage level of the signal .*stereo means \u2018three dimensional \u2018.In stereo system, there are
two separate channels for amplifying two signals originally obtained from two
microphones. When these signals derive two speakers placed at some distance in a room,
the audience gets a three-dimensional audio effect.
**Audio means the range of frequencies which our ears can hear i.e., 20 Hz to 20 KHz

Features of such amplifiers:
1. Higher value of \u03b2
2. Low input resistance
3. RC coupling
4. High collector load resistance
Power Amplifier:

A power amplifier is required to deliver a large amount of power to the load; hence it has
to handle a large amount of power to the load, hence it has to handle large current. To
meet with these requirements, the followingfeatures are required to be incorporated in
such amplifiers.

1. Thicker base
2. largest size of transistor
3. low collector load resistance
4. transformed coupling
Process of power amplifications
A power amplifier actually does n\u2019t actually amplify power because amplification of
power contradicts the basic principle of physics i.e. law of conversation of energy.

In fact, a power amplifier, during operation takes the power from
the supply connected to the output circuit and converts it into useful AC signal power.
The type of AC power developed at the output of the power amplifier is controlled by te

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