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Functions: Instructional theories are prescriptive in nature. They relate specific
instructional events to learning processes and learning outcomes, identifies
instructional conditions that optimize learning outcomes, and provides a rational
description of causal relationships between procedures used to teach and their
behavioral consequences in enhanced human performance.
Reigeluth (1999) used the term 'instructional-design theory', which is defined as a theory
that "offers explicit guidance on how to between help people learn and develop. The
kinds of learning and development may include cognitive, emotional, social, physical and
1. It is design-oriented: it focuses on means to attain given goals for learning or
development \u00e0 it provides direct guidance on how to achieve their goals. Design-
oriented theories are very different from descriptive theories, which describes the
effects that occur when a given class of causal events occurs, or which describes
the sequence in which certain events occur
2. It identifies methods of instruction, i.e. ways to support and facilitate learning, as
well as the situations in which those methods should and should not be used.
3. In all instructional-design theories, the methods of instruction can be broken into
more detailed component methods, which provide more guidance to educators
about different components and different ways to perform the methods; different
4. The methods are probabilistic rather than deterministic: focusing on control
instead of description and explanation \u00e0 In other words, instructional-design
theories intend to control variables in the learning environment to achieve certain
Both values and empirics are important for making decisions about how to teach as well as what to teach. All the instructional-design-theories state explicitly what values guide their selection of goals and what values guide their selection of methods.
It provides guidelines for practitioners. It transforms descriptive theory into methods of
how to work, developing techniques and determine implementation details that are
applicable to most conditions
2. What learning-tool features best allow an array of alternative methods to be made
available to learners and allow them to make decisions (with varying degrees of
guidance) about both content (what to learn) and methods while the instruction is
based on the different theoretical foundations about learning.
Reigeluth, C. M. (1999). (Ed.), Instructional-design theories and models: An new
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