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Para lab 1

Para lab 1

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PARASITOLOGY LABORATORY 1 \u2013 NEMATODES
USTMED \u201907 Sec C \u2013 AsM; pictures provided by JV.N.
TRICHURIS TRICHIURA

Note the gross features of the typical, unembryonated, fertile egg, ie, the bile-stained, thick, smooth shell with polar prominences, often called polar \u201cplugs.\u201d

Trichuris trichiura X-section Appendix
Trichuris trichiura fertilized ova. Female worms in the human cecum shed

3,000 to 20,000 eggs per day. Embryonation occurs after the egg passes into the environment (requires tropical temperature). On average, an infective egg (embryonated) survives for less than 1 year.

T. trichiura in sect. appendix.
Trichuris trichiura

This illustration demonstrates the gross
features of male and female adult worms.
Note that both are whip-like, that the
male, in contrast to the female, has a
characteristically coiled tail. These worms,
though small, are readily seen but rarely
found in feces, except following treatment.

Trichuris trichiura (adult male)
Trichuris trichiura(female)
ENTEROBIUS VERMICULARIS
Enterobius vermicularis (adult male)

Adult male worms are much smaller than
females and are detected less frequently
in feces or on cellulose tape. The oral
end lacks a true buccal capsule but is
provided with three lips and dorsoventral
bladder-like expansion of the cuticula.
Note the posterior end strongly curved
ventrad. It has a single conspicuous
copulatory spicule.

(below) Higher magnification of the
posterior end of the adult male showing
strongly curved ventral end and the

conspicuous copulatory spicule.
Enterobius vermicularis

Female and male adult worms. The female worms of E. vermicularis
(pinworm) is white and measures from 8 to 15 mm in length by
approximately 0.4 mm in width. In contrast, the male adult worm is much
smaller, measuring 2 to 3 mm in length by 0.1 to 0.2 mm in width. The
dilated cephalic region is similar in both sexes, while the tail is pointed in
the females (left) and blunted in the males (right). Females are more
frequently found in cellophane tape preparations than the males. The
cephalic inflation of the cuticle and the muscular and bulbous protions of
the esophagus separated by a narrow region can be observed in the right
figure.

Enterobius vermiculariso va

Clear adhesive tape applied
to the perianal area of a
child reveals numerous
football \u2013 shapedEnterobius

vermicularisembryonated

ova. Scratching the perianal
area leads to hand
contamination with infected
ova and retroinfections of
the host.

Clear adhesive
tape applied to
the perianal area
of a child reveals
numerous
football-shaped
Enterobius ova.
Scratcing the

perianal area leads to hand contamination with infective ova and
reinforcement of the houst.
Enterobius vermicularisfem ale
Enterobius vermicularism ale
TRICHINELLA SPIRALIS
CLASSIFICATION
\u2013
Nematode
DISEASE
-
trichinosis
GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION
-
Cosmopolitan, but more prevalent in Europe and North
America than in tropical countries.
LOCATION IN HOST
-

Adult worms live in intestinal tract for several weeks to
several months. The larval stage, encapsulated in
muscle tissue, may live for several years

MORPHOLOGY
-

Adult worms. The adult male is minute, measuring 1.4-
1.6 mm in length by 40-60 u, and has two large, fleshy
papillas(?) at the posterior end. Adult females are 2.5-
4.0 mm long by 100-150 u wide. The reproductive tract
is filled with developing eggs and larvae. In both sexes,
the esophagus (stichosome) consists of a thin, narrow
tube surrounded by a column of glandular cells called
stichocytes.

LARVAE
-

Minute larvae, produced by the adult female, measure
100 u long by 6 u in diameter. Infective larvae in muscle
tissue measure 0.8-1.0 mm long.

LIFE CYCLE
-

When infective larvae in muscle tissue are ingested,
they reach maturity in the intestine in approximately
one week. Adult females deposit their minute larvae in
the mucosal epithelium. These larvae enter the
bloodstream and are carried to the muscle tissue
throughout the body. The larvae grow in muscle tissue,
become infective in approximately one month,, and are
encapsulated by host tissue. All mammals may be
infected by this parasite, but pigs and rats are the most
important reservoir hosts in nature.

DIAGNOSIS
-

usually based on clinical symptoms and history of
ingestion of poorly cooked meat, especially pork
products. Serologic tests are useful. Although muscle
biopsies usually are not performed to detect larvae, the
procedure may be used. Diagnosis of animal infections is
best established by examination of tissue. Larvae are
most abundant in tongue, masseter muscle, diaphragm,

and other active muscle tissues.
-

Diagnostic problems \u2013 in light infections, symptoms may
be vague and trichinosis not considered in a differential
diagnosis. In animal infections, a few press preparations
of muscle tissue may not be adequate to demonstrate
larvae. Thus, artificial digestion of large amounts of
muscle tissue may be required.

COMMENTS
-

Most infections in the United States now are attributable
to eating of poorly cooked or smoked pork products
derived from hogs raised on private farms, rather than
from processed by commercial meat packing firms. Bear
meat has been shown to be infected, and numerous
cases of human infection have been traced to this
source.

Trichinella spiralis encysted larvae

The larvae produced by adult females migrate via the blood-stream to the
musculature where they undergo considerable growth and development,
and become encapsulated by host tissue. Larvae may be found in press
preparations of skeletal muscle (left) or in hematoxylin-eosin-stained
histologic sections of the same tissues. In this stained section (right) of
diaphragm, not the presence of four larvae surrounded by the host tissue
reaction.

CAPILLARIA PHILIPPINENSIS
Capillaria philippinensis
Stichosome
Egg
Spicule
Spicule sheath
Adult female
Adult male

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