Typically have a thin, hyaline shell and are bluntly rounded at the ends. They usually are in 4-8 cell stage in fresh feces and the developing ovum tends to fill the shell. In feces, it is not possible to differentiate the eggs of human Hookworm like Necator
Hookworm first-stage (rhabditoid) larvae. These larvae may be confused withStrongyloides larvae, normally passed in feces. The hookworm larva has a long, tubular, buccal canal and the genital primordium cannot be seen.
Hookworm, third-stage, filariform (infective) larva. The third-stage larva is much longer and more slender than its rhabditoid stage, has a short esophagus, a long intestine, and a sharply pointed tail. The iodine stain used here demonstrates the relative length of the esophagus and intestine \u2013 a ratio of approximately 1:4 in hookworm larvae. This stage normally is found in soil or in feces cultured for five days or longer. It is possible to differentiate species of the generaNecator andAncyc lostoma based on the morphology of third-stage larva.
(left). Male worm showing copulatory bursa (middle). Frontal view of head showing pronounced anterior bend or \u201chook\u201d and cutting plates (below).
Eggs. Fertile eggs are bile-stained, have a mammillated, thick shell, measures 66-75 u by 35-50 u, and are in the one-celled stage when passed in feces. In some instances, the outer albuminoid, mammillated layer is absent (decorticated eggs). Infertile eggs are elongate, 85-95 u by 43-47 u, and have thin shells, with the mammillated layer varying from grossly irregular mammillations to a relatively smooth layer almost completely lacking mammillations. The internal contents are a mass of disorganized, highly refractive granules.
mammillated external layer of the thick shell. This well defined ovum is in the one-cell
that normally found in fresh feces.Ascaris
ovum. This typical
stage larva. This
develops in the
otherwise normal egg, the external
mammillated layer is absent, and the egg is referred to as \u201cdecorticated.\u201d
This infertile egg
has a poorly
Morphology- males are 15-31 cm by 2-4 mm,
and have a curved tail. Females are 20-35 cm
by 3-6 mm, and have a straight tail.
and more slender than their rhabditoid
stage. With iodine stain (left) or unstained
(right) the larva is easily differentiated
from that of hookworm by its long
esophagus equal in length to the intestine,
and by its blunt, notched tail. This
filariform larva normally occurs only in soil
or in cultured feces.
(right) The parasitic, adult
lives threaded into the
mucosal epithelium of the
human small intestine.
There is no parasitic male;
the female reproduces by
parthogenesis. In contrast
to the free-living adults,
the female appears small,
very slender and
filariform, and has a short
pointed tail. Parasitic
females rarely are seen in
(left) Free-living adult female, iodine stain. If feces are allowed to stand at
room temperature and remain moist for two to three days, the rhabditoid
larvae (arrow) may develop into free-living adult worm.
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