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Para lab 2

Para lab 2

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PARASITOLOGY LABORATORY 2 \u2013 NEMATODES
USTMED \u201907 Sec C \u2013 AsM; pictures provided by JV.N.
HOOKWORM
Hookworm species fertilized ovum.

Typically have a thin, hyaline shell and are bluntly rounded at the ends. They usually are in 4-8 cell stage in fresh feces and the developing ovum tends to fill the shell. In feces, it is not possible to differentiate the eggs of human Hookworm like Necator

or Ancyclostoma.
Hookworm Rhabditiform larvae.

Hookworm first-stage (rhabditoid) larvae. These larvae may be confused withStrongyloides larvae, normally passed in feces. The hookworm larva has a long, tubular, buccal canal and the genital primordium cannot be seen.

Hookworm Filariform larvae

Hookworm, third-stage, filariform (infective) larva. The third-stage larva is much longer and more slender than its rhabditoid stage, has a short esophagus, a long intestine, and a sharply pointed tail. The iodine stain used here demonstrates the relative length of the esophagus and intestine \u2013 a ratio of approximately 1:4 in hookworm larvae. This stage normally is found in soil or in feces cultured for five days or longer. It is possible to differentiate species of the generaNecator andAncyc lostoma based on the morphology of third-stage larva.

Hookworm adult male
Hookworm adult female
ANCYCLOSTOMA DUODENALE
Ancyclostoma braziliense mouth part
Ancyclostoma caninum adult mouth part
The anterior portion of an adult is responsible for the attachment which is
known as the mouth part. Take note of the dental patterns of this parasite.
Ancyclostoma species adult male
NECATOR AMERICANUS
Necator americanus adults. Female worm

(left). Male worm showing copulatory bursa (middle). Frontal view of head showing pronounced anterior bend or \u201chook\u201d and cutting plates (below).

Necator americanus female adult worm
Necator americanus male adult worm
ASCARIS LUMBRICOIDES

Eggs. Fertile eggs are bile-stained, have a mammillated, thick shell, measures 66-75 u by 35-50 u, and are in the one-celled stage when passed in feces. In some instances, the outer albuminoid, mammillated layer is absent (decorticated eggs). Infertile eggs are elongate, 85-95 u by 43-47 u, and have thin shells, with the mammillated layer varying from grossly irregular mammillations to a relatively smooth layer almost completely lacking mammillations. The internal contents are a mass of disorganized, highly refractive granules.

Ascaris
lumbricoides
fertilized ova. Note the
characteristic
bile
stained,

mammillated external layer of the thick shell. This well defined ovum is in the one-cell

stage,

that normally found in fresh feces.Ascaris

lumbricoides

embryonated
ovum. This typical
embryonated egg
contains an
infective, second
stage larva. This
egg normally
develops in the
soil.

Ascaris
lumbricoides
fertilized ovum. In
this

otherwise normal egg, the external

mammillated layer is absent, and the egg is referred to as \u201cdecorticated.\u201d

Ascaris
lumbricoides

unfertilized ovum.
This infertile egg
has a poorly
developed irregular
mammillated layer.

Ascaris lumbricoides adult worms.

Morphology- males are 15-31 cm by 2-4 mm,
and have a curved tail. Females are 20-35 cm
by 3-6 mm, and have a straight tail.

Ascaris lumbricoides adult female Ascaris lumbricoides adult male
Ascaris lumbricoides Anterior (tri-radiate)
Ascaris lumbricoides female x-section
Ascaris lumbricoides male x-section
STRONGYLOIDES STERCORALIS
Strongyloides rhabditiform larvae
Strongyloides Filariform larvae
Strongyloides third-stage, filariform
(infective) larvae. The filariform larvae of
S. stercoralis, as in hookworms, are longer

and more slender than their rhabditoid
stage. With iodine stain (left) or unstained
(right) the larva is easily differentiated
from that of hookworm by its long
esophagus equal in length to the intestine,
and by its blunt, notched tail. This
filariform larva normally occurs only in soil
or in cultured feces.

Strongyloides stercoralisadult

(right) The parasitic, adult
female ofStrongyloides
lives threaded into the
mucosal epithelium of the
human small intestine.
There is no parasitic male;
the female reproduces by
parthogenesis. In contrast
to the free-living adults,
the female appears small,
very slender and
filariform, and has a short
pointed tail. Parasitic
females rarely are seen in
feces.

(left) Free-living adult female, iodine stain. If feces are allowed to stand at
room temperature and remain moist for two to three days, the rhabditoid
larvae (arrow) may develop into free-living adult worm.

-fin-audsmartinez @gmai l.com
ustmedc3@yahoogroups.com

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