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Exact Differential Equations

# Exact Differential Equations

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Steps for solving an exact differential equation.
Steps for solving an exact differential equation.

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03/24/2012

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Steps for Solving an Exact Diﬀerential Equation
(Method 1)Diﬀerential Equation:
(
x,y
)
dx
+
(
x,y
)
dy
= 0
Step 1
: Check if
∂M ∂y
=
∂N ∂x
If equal, then the equation is
exact
. If not equal, then try to make it exact using the followingrules for ﬁnding an integrating factor: (
Note: this may not always work
.)If (
y
x
)
/
is a function of
x
only, then
µ
(
x
) =
e

y
x
dx
If (
x
y
)
/
is a function of
y
only, then
µ
(
y
) =
e

x
y
dy
Multiply the integrating factor through
(
x,y
)
dx
+
(
x,y
)
dy
= 0 and proceed to step 2.
Step 2
: There exists a function such that
∂f ∂x
=
(
x,y
)Integrate with respect to
x
:
(
x,y
) =

(
x,y
)
dx
+
g
(
y
) (1)
Step 3
: Take the partial derivative of equation(1) with respect to
y
and set equal to
(
x,y
)
∂f ∂y
=
∂ ∂y

(
x,y
)
dx
+
g
(
y
)
(
x,y
) (2)Solve for
g
(
y
):
g
(
y
) =
(
x,y
)
∂ ∂y

(
x,y
)
dx
(3)
Step 4
: Integrate equation(3) with respect to
y
, then substitute into equation(1).The explicit solution is in the form of
(
x,y
) =
c
, where c is a constant.1