Chapter 1INTRODUCTION AND BASIC CONCEPTS
Classical thermodynamics is based on experimental observations whereas statistical thermodynamicsis based on the average behavior of large groups of particles.
On a downhill road the potential energy of the bicyclist is being converted to kinetic energy, andthus the bicyclist picks up speed. There is no creation of energy, and thus no violation of the conservationof energy principle.
There is no truth to his claim. It violates the second law of thermodynamics.
A car going uphill without the engine running would increase the energy of the car, and thus it would be a violation of the first law of thermodynamics. Therefore, this cannot happen. Using a level meter (adevice with an air bubble between two marks of a horizontal water tube) it can shown that the road thatlooks uphill to the eye is actually downhill.
Mass, Force, and Units
Pound-mass lbm is the mass unit in English system whereas pound-force lbf is the force unit. One pound-force is the force required to accelerate a mass of 32.174 lbm by 1 ft/s
. In other words, the weightof a 1-lbm mass at sea level is 1 lbf.
In this unit, the word
refers to the speed of light. The light-year unit is then the product of avelocity and time. Hence, this product forms a distance dimension and unit.
There is no acceleration, thus the net force is zero in both cases.
. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers andeducators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.