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Thermodynamics.cengel.6th.solutions Ch01

# Thermodynamics.cengel.6th.solutions Ch01

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1-1
Chapter 1INTRODUCTION AND BASIC CONCEPTS
Thermodynamics
1-1C
Classical thermodynamics is based on experimental observations whereas statistical thermodynamicsis based on the average behavior of large groups of particles.
1-2C
On a downhill road the potential energy of the bicyclist is being converted to kinetic energy, andthus the bicyclist picks up speed. There is no creation of energy, and thus no violation of the conservationof energy principle.
1-3C
There is no truth to his claim. It violates the second law of thermodynamics.
1-4C

A car going uphill without the engine running would increase the energy of the car, and thus it would be a violation of the first law of thermodynamics. Therefore, this cannot happen. Using a level meter (adevice with an air bubble between two marks of a horizontal water tube) it can shown that the road thatlooks uphill to the eye is actually downhill.
Mass, Force, and Units
1-5C
Pound-mass lbm is the mass unit in English system whereas pound-force lbf is the force unit. One pound-force is the force required to accelerate a mass of 32.174 lbm by 1 ft/s
2
. In other words, the weightof a 1-lbm mass at sea level is 1 lbf.
1-6C
In this unit, the word
light
refers to the speed of light. The light-year unit is then the product of avelocity and time. Hence, this product forms a distance dimension and unit.
1-7C
There is no acceleration, thus the net force is zero in both cases.
PROPRIETARY MATERIAL
. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers andeducators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

1-2
1-8E
The weight of a man on earth is given. His weight on the moon is to be determined.
Analysis
Applying Newton's second law to the weight force gives
lbm4.180 lbf 1ft/slbm174.32 ft/s10.32 lbf 180
22
= ⎠ ⎞⎝ ⎛ == ⎯ ⎯ =
g mmg
Mass is invariant and the man will have the same mass on the moon. Then, his weight on the moon will be
lbf30.7
= ⎠ ⎞⎝ ⎛ ==
22
ft/slbm174.32 lbf 1)ft/s47.5)(lbm4.180(
mg

1-9
The interior dimensions of a room are given. The mass and weight of the air in the room are to bedetermined.
Assumptions
The density of air is constant throughout the room.
Properties
The density of air is given to be
ρ
= 1.16 kg/m
3
.ROOMAIR 6X6X8 m
3
Analysis
The mass of the air in the room is
kg334.1
=××==
)m86)(6kg/m(1.16
33
V
ρ
m
Thus,
N3277
= ⎠ ⎞⎝ ⎛ ==
22
m/skg1 N1)m/skg)(9.81(334.1
mg

1-10
The variation of gravitational acceleration above the sea level is given as a function of altitude. Theheight at which the weight of a body will decrease by 1% is to be determined.Sea level
z
0
Analysis
The weight of a body at the elevation z can be expressed as
Wmgm
= = ×
(..)980733210
6
In our case,
WWmgm
ss
= = =
0990990999807...()(.)
Substituting,
m29,539
= ⎯ ⎯ ×=
z  z
)1032.381.9()81.9(99.0
6

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL
. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers andeducators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

1-3
1-11E
The mass of an object is given. Its weight is to be determined.
Analysis
Applying Newton's second law, the weight is determined to be
lbf9.95
= ⎠ ⎞⎝ ⎛ ==
22
ft/slbm174.32 lbf 1)ft/s0.32)(lbm10(
mg

1-12
The acceleration of an aircraft is given in
g
’s. The net upward force acting on a man in the aircraft isto be determined.
Analysis
From the Newton's second law, the force applied is
N5297
= ⎠ ⎞⎝ ⎛ ×===
22
m/skg1 N1)m/s9.81kg)(6(90)g6(
mma F

1-13
A rock is thrown upward with a specified force. The acceleration of the rock is to be determined.
Analysis
The weight of the rock is N48.95m/skg1 N1)m/skg)(9.79(5
22
= ⎠ ⎞⎝ ⎛ ==
mg
StoneThen the net force that acts on the rock is N101.0548.95150
downupnet
===
F  F  F
From the Newton's second law, the acceleration of the rock becomes
2
m/s20.2
= ⎠ ⎞⎝ ⎛ ==
N1m/skg1kg5 N101.05
2
m F a

PROPRIETARY MATERIAL
. © 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Limited distribution permitted only to teachers andeducators for course preparation. If you are a student using this Manual, you are using it without permission.

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