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P. 1
Distillation

Distillation

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Published by api-3743629
design processe
design processe

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Published by: api-3743629 on Oct 15, 2008
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03/18/2014

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C h a p te r4
D IS T IL L A T IO N
E Q U IP M E N T
O D U C T IO N

er tw o m aterials at any tem perature possessed a m arked difference in their ressures, this difference could be m ade the basis of a m ethod of separation w o; and if one or both of the substances w ere recovered by condensation, e s s is c a lle d d is tilla tio n .A n e q u ilib riu m

is e s ta b lis h e d a t a n y te m p e ra tu re a liq u id o r a m ix tu re o f liq u id s h e ld in a c o n ta in in g v e s s e l, a n d th e v a p o r a b o v e it. S in c ei ti s th is v a p o r w h ic h u ltim a te ly p a s s e s o u t o f th e c o n ta in in g nd w hen condensed form s the product of the process, the question arises, th e re la tio n o f th e c o m p o s itio n o f th is v a p o r to th e c o m p o s itio n o f th e liq u id h ic h it c a m e a n d w ith w h ic h it is in e q u ilib riu m ? T h e a n s w e r to th is q u e s tio n d e p e n d in go nth e m a n u fa c tu rin g p ro b le m s o f d iffe re n t k in d s o f m ix tu re s . s ly , if a v o la tile c o m p o n e n t is to b e s e p a ra te d f r o m

a n o n v o la tile o n e , th e n is c o m p a ra tiv e ly s im p le , a n d h a s in p rin c ip le b e e n d e s c rib e d in C h a p te r th e to p ic o f e v a p o ra tio n . It is n e c e s s a ry o n ly to v o la tiliz e th e m a te ria l in s e l a n d to c o n d e n s e it in a n o th e r to a c c o m p lis h th is p u r p o s e . In a m e c h a n ic a l of two

m u tu a lly
in s o lu b le liq u id s s u ffic ie n tly w e ll a g ita te d

to p re v e n t a tio n (fo r e x a m p le , tu rp e n tin e a n d w a te r, h e a v y fa tty a c id s a n d w a te r), a c e q u ilib riu m

is e s ta b lis h e d b e tw e e n th e liq u id a n d th e v a p o r w h e n th e o f e a c h k in d o f m o le c u le s e x itin g th e liq u id is in b a la n c e w ith th e n u m b e r c u le s o f e a c h k in d a g a in e n te rin g th e liq u id . T h e p re s s u re e x is tin g o v e r th e ixture w ill, therefore, be thesu m

of these individual pressures, and it th a t a p re s s u re e q u a l to th e a tm o s p h e re w ill b e re a c h e d a n d b o ilin g w ill e re s u lt a t a te m p e ra tu re b e lo w th a t a t w h ic h e ith e r o f th e c o m p o n e n t liq u id s o il a lo n e . T h is d e s c rip tio n fo rm s th e b a s is o f o n e ty p e o f d is tilla tio n in h ig h -b o ilin g liq u id is d is tille d a t a c o m p a ra tiv e ly lo w te m p e ra tu re b y th e n o f s o m e lo w -b o ilin g im m is c ib le liq u id o r its v a p o r in to th e s till. In th e c a s e w o liq u id s a re m u tu a lly s o lu b le , th e v a p o r p re s s u re o f e a c h is d e c re a s e d b y e n c eo fthe other, and therefore the sum of their vapor pressures is less than o f th e v a p o r p re s s u re s o f th e tw o liq u id s b e fo re m ix in g . T h e c o m p o s itio n a p o r is n o t in d e p e n d e n t o f th e re la tiv e a m o u n t o f th e c o m p o n e n tso fth e , b u t is p ro fo u n d ly

in flu e n c e d b y e a c h o th e r. T h is c o m p o s itio n c a n b e e d fro m th e k n o w n v a p o r p re s s u re s o f th e in d iv id u a l p u re liq u id s . W h e n th e e s o f tw o liq u id s a re o f re la tiv e ly th e s a m e s iz e , a n d w h e n th e re a r en o

1 6 2
D IS T IL L A T IO N E Q U IP M E N T
1 6 3

a te d e ffe c ts w h e n m u tu a lly d is s o lv e d , s u c h a s m o le c u la r a s s o c ia tio n , th e n p o s itio no f th e v a p o r is g iv e n b y R a o u lt\u2019s la w . T h is la w s ta te s th a t th a t p a rt ta l v a p o r p re s s u re o f a s o lu tio n o f tw o liq u id s w h ic h is c a u s e d b y o n eo f th e e n ts w ill e q u a l th e p ro d u c to fth e v a p o r p re s s u re o f th a t c o m p o n e n t in its te , a n d its m o le fra c tio ni nth e liq u id . T h is la w , to g e th e r w ith H e n r y \u2019 s la w , rin c ip le

a p p lie d
in th e d e s ig n o f d is tilla tio n a p p a ra tu s . In g e n e ra l, th e
tio n o f th e v a p o r a ris in g fro m

a s o lu tio no f o n e liq u id in a n o th e r is a n l fu n c tio n o f th e c o m p o s itio n o f th e s o lu tio n a n d m u s t b e e x p e rim e n ta lly e d .

p te r p ro v id e s e le m e n ta ry d is c u s s io n s o n th e s u b je c t o f d is tilla tio n , w ith s g iv e n to p e tro le u m re fin in g o p e ra tio n s . G e n e ra l te rm in o lo g y a n d c o n c e p ts e n te d to p ro v id e th e p ro c e s s e n g in e e r w ith a w o rk in g k n o w le d g e o f th is n t s u b je c t, a n d to b e c o m e a c q u a in te d w ith th e m a jo r ty p e s o f e q u ip m e n t d is tilla tio n o p e ra tio n s . P h y s ic a l p ro p e rtie s o f h y d ro c a rb o n b a s e d m a te ria ls d e d in th e c h a p te r, a s d e riv e d fro m v a rio u s lite ra tu re s o u rc e s a n d a d a ta e lo p e d b y th e a u th o r o v e r th e y e a rs a s a c o n s u lta n t w o rk in g in th e re fin in g he CPI.

V IE W
O FD IS T IL L A T IO N

io n is s im p ly d e fin e d a s a p ro c e s s in w h ic h a liq u id o r v a p o r m ix tu re o f tw o s u b s ta n c e s is s e p a ra te d in to its c o m p o n e n t fra c tio n s o f d e s ire d p u rity , b y ic a tio n a n d re m o v a lo f h e a t. T h e p ro c e s s is b a s e d o n th e fa c t th a t th e v a p o r in g m ix tu re w ill b e ric h e r in th e c o m p o n e n ts th a t h a v e lo w e r b o ilin g p o in ts . w h e n th is v a p o r is c o o le d a n d c o n d e n s e d , th e c o n d e n s a te w ill c o n ta in m o re c o m p o n e n ts . A t th e s a m e tim e , th e o rig in a l m ix tu re w ill c o n ta in m o re o f volatile m aterial. The prim ary

e q u ip m e n t e m p lo y e d
in
the process
o f
o n a re d is tilla tio n c o lu m n s , w h ic h a re d e s ig n e d to a c h ie v e th is s e p a ra tio n

tly . A lth o u g h th e la y m a n h a s a fa ir id e a a s to w h a t \u201c d is tilla tio n \u201d m e a n s , th e nt aspects that seem to be m issed from the m anufacturing point of view are: lla tio n is th e m o s t c o m m o n s e p a ra tio n te c h n iq u e ; (2 ) it c o n s u m e s e n o rm o u s o f e n e rg y , b o th in te rm s o f c o o lin g a n d h e a tin g re q u ire m e n ts ;(3 )it c a n te to m ore than5 0 %

of plant operating costs. The best w ay to

re d u c e g costso fe x is tin g u n its , is to im p ro v e th e ir e ffic ie n c y a n d o p e ra tio n v ia o p tim iz a tio n

a n d
c o n tro l.
T o
a c h ie v e
th is
im p ro v e m e n t,
a
th o ro u g h
n d in g o f d is tilla tio n p rin c ip le s a n d h o w d is tilla tio n s y s te m s a r e d e s ig n e d is
l .

d , d is tilla tio n is th e p ro c e s s o f h e a tin g a liq u id u n til s o m e o f its in g re d ie n ts o th e v a p o r p h a s e , a n d th e n c o o lin g th e v a p o r to re c o v e r it in liq u id fo rm e n s a tio n . T h e m a in p u rp o s e o f d is tilla tio n is to s e p a ra te a m ix tu re b y ta k in g ge of different substances\u2019 readiness to becom e a vapor. If the difference in p o in ts b e tw e e n tw o s u b s ta n c e s is g re a t, c o m p le te s e p a ra tio n m a y b e e a s ily

H A N D B O O KO F C H E M IC A L P R O C E S S IN G E Q U IP M E N T
lis h e d b y a s in g le -s ta g e d is tilla tio n . If th e b o ilin g p o in ts d iffe r o n ly s lig h tly ,
e d is tilla tio n s m a y
be required. In the sim plest m ixture of tw o

m u tu a lly liq u id s w ith s im ila r c h e m ic a l s tru c tu re s , th e re a d in e s s to v a p o riz e o f e a c h tu rb e d b y th e p re s e n c e o f th e o th e r. T h e b o ilin g p o in t o f a5 0 -5 0 m ix tu re , p le , w o u ld b e h a lfw a y b e tw e e n th e b o ilin g p o in ts o f th e p u re s u b s ta n c e s , d e g re e o f s e p a ra tio n a c h ie v e d b y a s in g le d is tilla tio n w o u ld d e p e n d o n ly o n s ta n c e \u2019s re a d in e s s to v a p o riz e at th is te m p e ra tu re . T h is s im p le la w w a s firs t y

1 9 th - c e n tu ry b y th e F re n c h c h e m is t F ra n g o is M a rie R a o u lt (k n o w n a s
sla w ).
m

\u201c s till\u201d is a p p lie d o n ly to th e v e s s e l in w h ic h liq u id s a re b o ile d d u rin g io n , b u t th e te rm is s o m e tim e s a p p lie d to th e e n tire a p p a ra tu s , in c lu d in g th e a tin g c o lu m n , th e c o n d e n s e r, a n d th e re c e iv e r in w h ic h th e d is tilla te is d . If a w a te r a n d a lc o h o l d is tilla te is re tu rn e d fro m th e c o n d e n s e r a n d m a d e d o w n th ro u g h a lo n g c o lu m n o n to a s e rie s o f p la te s , a n d if th e v a p o r, a s it th e c o n d e n s e r, is m a d e to b u b b le th ro u g h th is liq u id a t e a c h p la te , th e v a p o r id w ill in teracts oth a t s o m eo f th e w a te r in th e v a p o r c o n d e n s e s a n d s o m e lc o h o l in th e liq u id v a p o riz e s . T h e in te ra c tio n a t e a c h p la te is e q u iv a le n t to lla tio n . T h is p ro c e s s is re fe rre d to b y s e v e ra l n a m e s in th e in d u s try ; n a m e ly tio n , fra c tio n a tio n , o r fra c tio n a l d is tilla tio n .

n s o lu b le liq u id s a re h e a te d , e a c h is u n a ffe c te d b y th e p re s e n c e o f th e o th e r
o riz e s to a n e x te n t d e te rm in e d o n ly b y

its o w n n a tu re . S u c h a m ix tu re b o ils a t a te m p e ra tu re lo w e r th a n is tru e fo r e ith e r s u b s ta n c e a lo n e . T h is a y

b e
a p p lie d to
substances that w ould be dam aged by
o v e rh e a tin g
if

in th e u s u a l fa s h io n . S u b s ta n c e s c a n a ls o b e d is tille d a t te m p e ra tu re s b e lo w rm a l b o ilin g p o in ts b y p a rtia lly e v a c u a tin g th e s till. T h e g re a te r th e v a c u u m , e r th e d is tilla tio n te m p e ra tu re .

o m p o n e n tso f D is tilla tio nC o lu m n s
re a v a rie ty o f c o n fig u ra tio n s fo r d is tilla tio n c o lu m n s , e a c h d e s ig n e d to
specific types of separations.A

sim plified w ay of classifying distillation is to lo o k a t h o w th e y a re o p e ra te d . In th is m a n n e r, th e tw o m a jo r ty p e s h a n d c o n tin u o u s c o lu m n s . In a b a tc h o p e ra tio n , th e fe e d to th e c o lu m n is e d b a tc h -w is e . T h a t is , th e c o lu m n is c h a rg e d w itha\u2018b a tc h \u2019 a n d th e n th e on process is conducted. W hen the desired separation is achieved, a next fe e d is in tro d u c e d . In c o n tra s t, c o n tin u o u s c o lu m n s p ro c e s s a c o n tin u o u s eam .N o

in te rru p tio n s o c c u r u n le s s th e re is a p ro b le m
o r u p s e ts w ith th e
o r
su rro u n d in g
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u n its .
T h e y
a re
c a p a b le
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h ig h
p u ts a n d a re th e m o s t c o m m o n o f th e tw o ty p e s . T h e fo llo w in g d is c u s s io n s
n
c o n tin u o u s
colum ns.
C o n tin u o u s
c o lu m n s
c a n
b e
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c la s s ifie d

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