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Moisture

Moisture

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Published by coolhemakumar
Basics of Moisture and measurement methods.
Basics of Moisture and measurement methods.

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Published by: coolhemakumar on Oct 06, 2011
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03/13/2014

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hemakumarb@pec.edu
MOISTURE Moisture
 refers to the presence of a liquid, especially water, often in trace amounts. Small amounts of water may be found, for example, in the air (humidity), in foods, and in various commercial products.
Moisture Terms:
Moisture content is defined in several ways that are specific to a certain material and application. Moisture content is expressed either on a wet or dry basis. These two definitions of moisture content are
Moisture content (wet basis) Moisture content (dry basis)
Where
 
 wei!ht of wet material (!)
d
 wei!ht of dry material (!)
Percent Moisture Content (MC)
M
"
  (W
w
 # W
d
) $ W
d
 x %&&'
Methods of Moisture Measurement:
The moisture content influences the physical properties of a substance such as wei!ht, density, viscosity, refractive index, electrical conductivity and many more. ver the years, a wide ran!e of methods has been developed to measure these physical quantities and express them in the form of the moisture content. The measurement methods can lo!ically be divided in the followin! procedures
 
Thermo !ravimetric
 
*hemical
 
Spectroscopic
 
thers.
 
 
hemakumarb@pec.edu
GRAVIMETRIC METHOS
The sample is wei!hed when it is +wet and subsequently wei!hed after dryin! off the moisture by desiccation (the process of extreme dryin!). Then "ercent moisture content is calculated.
 A!!"ication
Thermo !ravimetric methods are suitable for practically all thermally stable substances with a moisture content -&.%'.
Drying oven
Princi!"e#
 sample is dried by means of hot circulatin! air. To ti!hten up the dryin! conditions or to protect thermally unstable substances, dryin! is frequently performed under vacuum. The moisture content is determined by a differential wei!hin! before and after dryin!.
 I$!ortance#
/or many substances the dryin! oven method is a mandatory reference method with !ood reproducibility.
 Ad%anta&e
The advanta!e of the classical dryin! oven method lies in the number of samples which can be investi!ated simultaneously. Moreover, it offers the possibility of analy0in! lar!e amounts of samples, which can be a particular advanta!e with inhomo!eneous samples.
isad%anta&es
disadvanta!e of this method is the lar!e amount of manual effort involved and the lon! measurement time in the re!ion of hours. To shorten the measurement time, infrared or microwave dryers are thus often used today
.
*onsiderable systematic errors arise if the sample is hy!roscopic and absorbs moisture from the air after dryin! before it can be wei!hed. This can be eliminated by use of modern dryers with an inte!rated balance since wei!hin! and dryin! are performed simultaneously.
 
hemakumarb@pec.edu
Infrared drying
 
Princi!"e
This method uses direct infrared radiation instead of hot circulatin! air to dry the sample. The infrared rays are absorbed by the sample and the absorbed ener!y causes the desired heatin! of the substance.
Microwave drying
Princi!"e
This method is based on the absorption of microwave radiation by the water molecules of the sample. This absorption !enerates heat and leads to vapori0ation of the volatile components. Measured variable is here also the total amount of volatile components. This is determined by wei!hin! before and after dryin!.
Phosphorous pentoxide method
Princi!"e
The water1absorbin! phosphorous pentoxide is placed in a closed system alon! with the moist sample. The water vapor which vapori0es throu!h heatin! of the sample is immediately chemically bound by the pentoxide. The wei!ht increase of the phosphorous pentoxide is the measure of the water content of the sample. ccasionally, the chan!e in the electrical conductance of the phosphorous pentoxide is measured and represented as the moisture content.
Distillation
Princi!"e
The mass or volume fraction of the moisture thermally separated from a sample is measured. n or!anic solvent insoluble in water (e.!. toluene, xylene) is frequently added to solid samples before the distillation and forms an a0eotropic vapor phase with water in the distillation at a temperature 2%&& 3*. fter coolin!, the two liquid components separate, the water fraction is determined volumetrically or # after prior separation of the solvent fraction in a separatin! funnel # by wei!hin!.
SPECTROSCOPIC METHOS Princi!"e
Spectroscopic moisture determination methods are indirect measurement methods. ll these methods require calibration to determine the relation between the display of the spectrometer (primary measured variable) and the value determined by a reference method. The variable measured by the spectrometer is never a function which is dependent solely on the moisture, but on other parameters such as the density, temperature and material properties.

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